Era, Case, President, War

Study Era

1

1808 - 1912

2

1913 - 1934

3

1935 - 1948

President

Madison

1808 - 1816

Monroe

1817 - 1825

Adams

1826 - 1829

Polk

1845 - 1849

Pierce

1853 - 1857

Johnson

1865 - 1869

Grant

1869 - 1877

Hayes

1877 - 1881

Garfield/Arthur

1881 - 1885

Harrison

1889 - 1893

Cleveland

1893 - 1897

McKinley

1897 - 1901

T. Roosevelt

1901 - 1909

Taft

1909 - 1913

Wilson

1913 - 1921

Harding

1921 - 1923

Coolidge

1924 - 1929

Hoover

1929 - 1933

F. Roosevelt

1933 - 1944

Truman

1945 - 1953

Case

1

1812

2

1812

EARTHQUAKE

Primary Debate: Most efficient means of assisting Venezuelans (lift embargo)

Resolution: Embargo not lifted; unanimous approval of $50,000 to send five ships laden with provisions to Caracass

3

1822

HUMANITARIAN AID DURING WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE

Primary Debate: Whether providing aid will compromise the neutrality of the United States

Resolution: Federal assistance not authorized, but private citizens gave generously

4

1826

HUMANITARIAN AID DURING WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE

Primary Debate: Whether providing aid will compromise the neutrality of the United States

Resolution: Federal assistance not authorized, but private citizens gave generously

5

1846

FAMINE

Primary Debate: Constitutionality of appropriating funds; not in U.S. national interests and is the responsibility of Great Britain (see Deep Dive #1)

Resolution: No funds appropriated, but Congress directed the USS Jamestown and USS Macedonian to be placed at the public’s disposal (unique in Navy history)

6

1855

FAMINE*

Primary Debate: Constitutionality of using Navy (which is a pro tanto donation); Navy may not have men to spare

Resolution: Passed in Congress (123/24) and referred to Secretary of the Navy. It appears Navy did not provide the requested seamen.

*Note: this request was for 25 Navy seamen to crew a private vessel laden with private donations from New York

7

1867

Public Law #82 - sympathy for

8

1867

9

1870

HUMANITARIAN AID AFTER FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR

Primary Debate: Impartiality – should American vessel transport aid to Germany, or only France?

Resolution: U.S. Navy ship provided for Americans to donate to any country they so desired.

10

1879

Expressing sympathy for Irish in struggle for independence

11

1882

12

1889

persecution of Jews

14

1891

13

1891

FAMINE

Primary Debate: Not aligned with new policy of “entrenchment and reform”, the Great Russian Empire is capable of responding to the need, we deny requests from our own citizens for charity so shouldn’t help foreigners. (See Deep Dive #2)

Resolution: Referred to Committee on Appropriations indefinitely; nothing done.

15

1895

ARMENIAN ATROCITIES

Primary Debate: How should the U.S. respond to the cries of the American people regarding atrocities in Armenia? Some said let the “delicate and difficult” process of diplomacy run its course. Others argued that Congress should issue a strong statement, to the point of threatening war, if Turkey did not stop atrocities and/or European powers did not uphold obligations of the 1878 Treaty of Berlin.

Resolution: Joint Resolution adopted, with vote of 143/26 in House, with most opposition on the Democratic side. First time that emphasis of debate was on political action to remove causes of situation, rather than on authorizing temporary relief.

16

1896

FAMINE

Primary Debate: Strong support for charity, but Great Britain’s inhumane laws as cause of suffering debated (Senate), and inability to find American ship led to quibbles over Navigation Laws (House)

Resolution: US Navy authorized to charter three ships: the Everett sailed from San Fransisco, but the crisis had passed before the Navy was able to charter a ship for the east coast donations

18

1897

17

1897

MILITARY AND HUMANITARIAN SUPPLIES TO INSURGENTS

Primary Debate: Minimal debate over wording – “belligerents” changed to “inhabitants”, etc. First draft offered citizenship and positions in U.S. Army to Cuban belligerents, but that was removed early-on by Committees.

Resolution: S.4518 provided “arms, munitions, and military stores” as well as “medical and quartermaster supplies and other aid” to inhabitants of the island… who are in danger of perishing, and to increase their effective fighting force against Spain.

19

1899

20

1899

21

1901

23

1901

22

1901

VOLCANO ERUPTION

Primary Debate: It is not proper for “legislative spasms” to be used as a means for expressing our personal sympathy – this is for private citizens to respond to as they see fit. France is a wealthy nation and has not asked us to interfere.

Result: Up to $200,000 authorized to purchase clothing, medicines, and other necessary articles to be distributed by US Navy, passed in House with vote of 197/9 (Senate y/n not recorded)

24

1906

EARTHQUAKE

Primary Debate: No debate.

Result: US Navy authorized to distribute clothing, medicines and other necessary articles from its existing stores (the well-stocked USS Celtic was in the nearby port of Guantanamo)

25

1908

EARTHQUAKE

Primary Debate: No dissent. Reasons to give: friendship/immense debt, connections through Italian immigrants to America, American has an abundance.

Result: US President authorized: $800,000 to procure and distribute provisions, clothing, medicines and other necessary articles; and to employ any vessels of the US Navy and to charter and employ any other suitable steamship or vessels necessary.

Note: this was the largest natural disaster of the 20th century.

26

1909

HUMAN RIGHTS

Primary Debate: no debate

Result: Public Resolution passed in congress and signed by President stating sympathy for the Jews in Russia who “are being persecuted and massacred on account of their race and religion”.

27

1909

EARTHQUAKE

Primary Debate: No debate.

Result: US President authorized to use and distribute such tents, blankets, and other necessary articles belonging to the stores of the military establishment, the naval establishment, and the Isthmian Canal Commission*. No dollar amount specified.

*The Isthmian Canal Commission was established in 1904 to oversee the construction of the Panama Canal.

28

1910

29

1911

China Famine Relief

30

1911

FAMINE

Primary Debate: No debate recorded, though the issue went back-and-forth in committees and conference (presumably over language – perhaps regarding amount and specifying number of trips)

Result: Secretary of War authorized to transport, under supervision of American National Red Cross Society, the supplies donated by the people of the United States provided that the total expenses incurred shall not exceed $50,000.

31

1913

TAM - USACE, China

32

1914

EE - Loans to Citizens

33

1914

ARC - authority to charter a ship

34

1915

EE

37

1916

EE

35

1916

EE - Lithuania

36

1916

ME

38

1916

EE

39

1917

EE

40

1917

EE

41

1917

EE

45

1917

EE

42

1918

EE

43

1918

EE

44

1918

EE

46

1919

EE

47

1919

EE

48

1919

EE

49

1919

MS

50

1919

MS

51

1919

AS

52

1920

EE

54

1921

EE

55

1921

EE

53

1921

EE

56

1921

EE

57

1921

EE

58

1921

MS

59

1921

AS

60

1921

EE

61

1922

EE

62

1922

EE

63

1923

EE

64

1923

EE

65

1923

EE

66

1923

EE

67

1923

AS

68

1923

AS

69

1924

EE

70

1925

EE

71

1925

EE

72

1925

LC

73

1925

EE

74

1927

EE

75

1928

MS

78

1929

EE

79

1929

EE

80

1929

EE

81

1929

EE

76

1931

MS

77

1931

AS

82

1932

EE

83

1932

MS

84

1933

AS

85

1933

LC

86

1934

MS

87

1934

EE

88

1938

EE

89

1938

EE

90

1938

EE

91

1940

EE

92

1940

LC

93

1941

EE

94

1941

EE

95

1941

LC

96

1941

MS

97

1941

MS

98

1941

MS

99

1942

EE

100

1942

MS

101

1942

AS

105

1943

AS

106

1943

LC

102

1943

EE

103

1943

EE

104

1943

MS

107

1944

MS

108

1945

MS

109

1946

MS

111

1947

EE

112

1947

LC

113

1947

MS

110

1947

EE

114

1948

MS

115

1948

MS

War

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

Second Barbary War

1815

In the Second Barbary War, an American fleet commanded by Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge defeated the Barbary Pirates (Ottoman Empire's North African regencies).

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1847

U.S. Civil War

1861 - 1865

Spanish-American War

1898

WWI

1914 - 1918

WWII

1939 - 1945