Applied Chemistry

Timeline

Age of Discovery begins

1400

Age of Discovery ends

1700

Industrial Revolution begins

1750

Industrial Revolution ends

1860

World War I begins

1914

World War I Ends

1918

World War II begins

1937

World War II ends

1945

Dyes

Mauve synthesized

1856

by William Henry Perkin
London, England
First synthetic dye
Launched chemistry from academic to industrial enterprise

BASF, Hoescht, and Bayer

1860 - 1925

German dye companies begin in the 1860s and by 1900 command 90% of the world's dye market.

IG Farben created

1925 - 1945

After WW I, the German dye companies combine to form IG Farben, a giant conglomerate. It disbanded after WW II to reform BASF, Hoescht and Bayer.

Drugs

Aspirin synthesized

1893

Also know as acetylsalicylic acid, at Bayer by Felix Hofmann

Salvarsan 606 created

1909

By Paul Erlich in cooperation with Hoescht Dyeworks. Successfully treated syphilis bacterial infection. First anti-bacterial drug. It was arsenic based and had some toxic health effects, but was better than the mercury alternative.

Penicillin discovered

1928

Alexander Fleming, in London, notices that a mold prevents bacterial growth.

Protonsil red tested

1935

Gerhard Dogmak working at IG Farben tested protonsil red dye on his daughter. Worked in live organisms despite failing in lab tests, due to biological mechanisms. FIrst of the sulfa drugs. Kills bacteria by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid -- an essential nutrient. It doesn't affect humans because we eat folic acid.

First clinical trials of penicillin

1941

Crucial part of chemical structure is the 4-member beta-lactam ring. As it opens, it adheres to an enzyme needed to build cell walls. Without the functioning enzyme, the bacteria can not divide to form new cells. It does not affect humans, because we do not have cell walls.

Polymers

Explosives

Henri Becquered Discovery of Radioactiviy

1896

He accidently discovered radioactivity by exposing film to a rock containing Uranium. It ruined his photographic plate, and he decided that Uranium "emited" some type of energy.

Chemical Warfare

Chemical Warfare- first use

1915

Cl2-ahlonine gas was first used. Employed by Germans in Belgium (Battle of Ypres). Directed by Fritz Haber

Phosgene

December 1915

Lung Irritant: 1st used by Germans. Quickly characterized and used by Allies. Reacted with some amino acids functional groups.

Mustard Gas

1917

Vesicant: Caused more casualties in WW1 than any other class of compounds. Hitler stopped using it in field battle because it temporarily blinded him. Came by in 1988 by Saddan Hussein.

Chlorocompounds

First use of Refrigerants

1851

Refrigerants are used to keep things cool. An ether based compression system for an Australia brewery was discovered

First use of IN-HOME refrigerants

1913

Refrigerants were in high demand so in-home refrigerants were created

CFC's create Enviornmental Problem

1985

The ozone layer has shown to be depleted over the south pole

Montreal Protocol

1987

A multinational agreement to phase out and eventually ban the use of CFC's. The use of CFC's halted in 1996.

Food