AP Euro Timeline- Xena Makky

Trimester Project



1400 - 1600

Themes: Art and Literature

This is kind of like a bridge between the Middle Ages and Modern Europe because (over-time) religious diversity expanded and people were more rational and educated and started to think for themselves. Nice times

Printing Press


Theme: Advances in Science, Technology and Industry

Invented by Gutenberg. This made it possible for more people to afford books and read because the labor for hand-making the material and then copying word for word was very expensive. The demand of books continued to grow, especially in the middle class, and this expanded education and was kind of like a bridge to modern Europe because everything after that couldn't have really happened (like news/propaganda) and this made advancements later on better.


1450 - 1500

Themes: Innovation

Believing in that humans have a purpose and emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence over acceptance of dogma. Humans are rational

Desiderius Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Themes: European Intellectuals and New Ideas

Erasmus was a HUMANIST classical scholar (probably the most important). Erasmus believed that the ideal Christian life was to follow a life of virtue based on Christ's example. The ancients also provided insights into the virtuous life. Because he advocated a life of simple virtues, Erasmus felt that the Roman Catholic Church needed to reform its superstitious and corrupt behavior. He attacked the Church for its pomp and for its magical beliefs about relics, cults of saints, and indulgences.

In Praise of Folly


1469 - 1527

Themes: European Intellectuals and New Ideas

He was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science

Isabella and Ferdinand


Theme: Centralizing Government

There marriage united Spain


1473 - 1543

Themes: Advancements in Science AND European Intellectuals

Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1648

Theme: Urbanization

The mixing of populations in Europe and the new world, America so trade increased and spare money at homes could be spent on goods.


October 27 1492

Famed Italian explorer Christopher Columbus discovered the "New World" of the Americas on an expedition sponsored by King Ferdinand of Spain in 1492.

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1600

Theme: Citizens and Basic Rights

Period of ‘Hunting Witches’ in small towns, using witches as excuses for bad things.

Divine Right of Kings

1500 - 1718

Theme: Centralized Government/Absolutism

The divine right of kings, or divine-right theory of kingship, is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving his right to rule directly from the will of God. This is most recognized as being a time when Louis XIV of France ruled.

In Praise of Folly (Erasmus)


Theme: European Intellectuals and New Ideas

Written by probably one of the most important (humanists). Erasmus felt that the Roman Catholic Church needed to reform its superstitious and corrupt behavior. In Praise of Folly in 1509. This book attacked monks, theologians, and other Christians for not seeing the true purpose of life, which is to imitate Christ. Based on his ideals of Christian humanism, Erasmus preached piety, literary scholarship, and the study of the Scriptures.

Machiavelli writes "The Prince"


Theme: Absolutism

This is a satire dedicated to Medici. Some people believe it's like a guide on how to rule, and other's believe he is telling Lorenzo de Medici, the ruler of Florence. It doesn't matter, but he is criticizing his ruling strategies.


1514 - 1564

Theme: Advancement in Science, Technology, and Industry (and Medical)

Vesalius (1514-64): Flemish physician, taught at the University of Padua in Italy. Made careful dissections and founded the science of anatomy. Published his findings in Structure of the Human Body (DaVinci never published his work). The accepted anatomy of the human body until that time was Galen's(a Hellenistic Greek) - recorded in the 2nd century A.D. His work and teachings would influence subsequent medical scientists.

Martin Luther’s “95 Theses"


Theme: hehe

On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther published his 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church, marking the start of the Protestant Reformation. These explained the inefficiency of the indulgences that were being issued by the Church.

Martin Luther's Excommunication


Theme: Protestants and Catholics

On January 3, 1521, Pope Leo X issues the papal bull "Decet Romanum Pontificem", which excommunicates Martin Luther from the Catholic Church. n January 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther. Three months later, Luther was called to defend his beliefs before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms, where he was famously defiant. For his refusal to recant his writings, the emperor declared him an outlaw and a heretic. Luther was protected by powerful German princes, however, and by his death in 1546, the course of Western civilization had been significantly altered.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Theme: Protestants and Catholics

Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church., prompted by the Protestant Reformation

Peace of Augsburg


Theme: Religious Conflict

The Peace of Augsburg, which was a result of the Reformation, was signed in 1555 and divided Europe into the Roman Catholic Church and the new Lutheran (Protestant) Church. Charles V (1500–1558), the Holy Roman emperor, was reluctant to concede lands to Protestantism, yet he also wished to end the religious divisions in the empire. Princes themselves had converted to Lutheranism, and they convinced Charles to allow each prince to choose between the two faiths for his own land. The Peace of Augsburg officially recognized the Lutheran Church and the right of people to worship as Protestants.


1564 - 1642

Theme: Advancements in Science, Technology, and Industry

Italian mathematician, astronomer and physicist. Determined the validity of the heliocentric theory. The telescope had recently been invented in the Netherlands and Galileo refined the design to make astronomical observations and confirm Copernicus' theory


1571 - 1630

Theme: Advancement in Science, Technology and Industry

a German astronomer who had worked for Brahe and accepted the heliocentric theory. Proceeded to develop THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION. Published these between 1609 and 1619:
(1) planets, including the earth, revolve around the sun in elliptical(rather than circular) orbits
(2) velocity of the planets varies according to their distance from the sun and a planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun than when is farther away
(3) third law set forth a complex mathematical formula explaining the physical relationship among the moving planets

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Theme: Secularization and Revolutionary

King Henry IV of France signed the Edict of Nantes in 1598 which granted Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) rights in France, which was, at the time, still Catholic. In the Edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity. The Edict separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants for the first time better and opened a path for secularism and tolerance.

In a way it lessened the influence/power of the church...kinda hehe

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1750

Theme: Advancement in Agriculture and Production

During the 18th century, bread and grain prices rose significantly, and since bread was their main food, this inflation put a lot of pressure on the poor, especially since the prices were becoming higher than urban wage. These prices gave landlords an opportunity to improve their incomes and lifestyle, and so landlords in Western Europe began a series of innovations in farm production that became known as the Agricultural Revolution. This challenged the traditional peasant ways of production.

Thirty Year War

1618 - 1648

Theme: Protestants and Catholics

This was a war of 4 stages between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. The war began when the Holy Roman Empire tried to impose religious uniformity on its domains. It resulted in devastation of entire regions including famine and disease, significantly decreasing the population. Ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia and altered the political order of the European powers.

John Lock

1632 - 1704

Theme: European Intellectuals and New Ideas

He was an Enlightened thinker who urged that the role of government is to protect the people from themselves. Used idea of Natural Rights, or rights that everyone should be granted, an idea embraced by the French Revolution.


1632 - 1723

Theme: Advancement in Science, Technology and Industry

A Dutch naturalist who perfected the microscope. The Dutch had long been renowned for their work with lenses. Leeuwenhoek used his perfected microscope to study the invisible world of bacteria, protozoa, and animal and plant cells

The English Civil War

1642 - 1651

The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government

Louis XIV reign

1643 - 1715

Theme: Centralized Government/Absolutism

Louis XIV's reign's (also known as the Sun King), lasted for 72 years, longer than that of any other known European sovereign. In that time, he transformed the monarchy, ushered in a golden age of art and literature, presided over a dazzling royal court at Versailles, annexed key territories and established his country as the dominant European power. During the final decades of Louis XIV’s rule, France was weakened by several lengthy wars that drained its resources and the mass exodus of its Protestant population following the king’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

The Palace of Versaile

1682 - 1790

Theme: Absolutism

The Palace of Versailles was the official residence of the Kings of France from 1682 until 1790. It was originally a hunting lodge, built in 1624, by Louis XIII. It was expanded by Louis XIV beginning in 1669.


1694 - 1778

Theme: European Intellectuals and New Ideas

Voltaire championed freedom of thought and religion, and influenced Enlightened Despots in Eastern Europe. He attacked injustice among nobility, government, church and believed in religious freedom

The Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

Theme: European Intellectuals and New Ideas

Period in the 1700's when philosophers believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature logically.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Theme: Centralized Government

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) was the first world war of modern times with theatres of war in Spain, Italy, Germany, Holland, and at sea. Charles II, king of Spain, died in 1700 without an heir. In his will he gave the crown to the French prince Philip of Anjou.

War for Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with decision that Philip could be King of Spain, but not of France as well.

The Steam Engine


Theme: Advancement in Science, Technology and Industry

in 1712, Thomas Newcomen had invented the first practical engine to use steam power. The steam engine permitted industrialization to grow on itself and to expand into one area of production after another. For the first time, this machine provided a steady and essentially unlimited surce of inanimate power. It depended on mineral energy that never exhausted.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Theme- European Intellectuals and New Ideas

Rousseau directly challenged the social fabric of the day. He questioned the concepts of material and intellectual progress and the morality of of a society in which commerce, industry, and the preservation of property rights were regarded as among the most important human activites

Author of The Social Contract (1762)


1715 - 1800

Theme: Art and Literature

Rococo (can also be refered to "late baroque") is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre. It developed in the early 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially of the Palace of Versailles.

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Theme: European Intellectuals and New Ideas

The most important thing was his work; "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations". He believed economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system. He urged that the mercantilism system of England be abolished.

James Watt

1736 - 1819

Themes: Advancements in Science and Technology

He build off of Thomas Newcomen

James Watt was a Scottish engineer and machine maker. During the 1760's, James Watt began to experiment with a model of Newcomen's machine, and by the early nineteenth century, the steam engine had become the prime mover for all industry. The steam engine also revolutionized transportaion because it could be applied to ships and wagons.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

This involved pretty much most of the major European powers over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Theme: Absolutism

Maria Theresa was an Austrian archduchess, and Holy Roman Empress of the Habsburg Dynasty from 1740 to 1780. She was also Marie Antoinette’s mother. Maria Theresa was born May 13, 1717, in Vienna, Austria. In 1740 she succeeded to the Habsburg throne. In resistance, Frederick II’s army invaded and claimed Silesia. The war ended in 1748, after which she reformed her government and military. In 1756 Frederick II waged the Seven Years War against her. In 1765 she appointed her son her co-regent. She died November 29, 1780, in Vienna, Austria.

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

Theme: Advances in Science, Technology and Industry

This could be considered a bridge to modern Europe involving many technological and social changes like new materials (coal, electricity, oil), and inventions like the spinning jenny.

Social Contract


Theme: European Intellectuals and New Ideas

Rousseau raised questions on what constitutes the good life and how human society can be reshaped to achieve that life. These same concerns, he'd discussed extensively in The Social Contract.

The National Assembly (and Civic Equalities)

August 4, 1784

Theme: Civic Qualities

The National Assembly abolishes the feudal regime

The Revolution of 1789


Theme: Revolutionary

(French Revolution)

The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies.

The Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

Themes: Rebellion/People Defending Their Rights

Louis XVI, who ascended the French throne in 1774, proved unsuited to deal with the severe financial problems he had inherited from his grandfather, King Louis XV. In 1789, in a desperate attempt to address France’s economic crisis, Louis XVI assembled the Estates-General, a national assembly that represented the three “estates” of the French people–the nobles, the clergy, and the commons. The Estates-General had not been assembled since 1614, and its deputies drew up long lists of grievances and called for sweeping political and social reforms.

The "Great Fear"

August 4, 1789

Theme: Absolutism/Urbanization/Basic Rights

Theme: Civic Equality

With the popular urban disturbances, the Great Fear swept across much of the French country side. Rumors that royal troops would be sent into rural districts got too serious and there was a lot of burning of legal records and documents. Peasants began reclaim rights and property lost

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

August 26, 1789

Theme: Civic Equality

The Declaration of the rights of Man and of the Citizen, passed by France's National Constituent Assembly in August 1789, is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human and civil rights.

Women's March on Versailles

October 5, 1789

Theme: Women's Progression

The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution.

On October 4, 1789, a crowd of women demanding bread for their families gathered other discontented Parisians, including some men, and marched toward Versailles, arriving soaking wet from the rain. They demanded to see "the Baker," "the Baker's wife," and "the Baker's boy". The King agreed to meet with some of the women and promised to distribute all the bread in Versailles to the crowd. The arrival of the National Guard on the scene determined to take the King back to Paris complicated things for the King

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

12 July 1790

Theme: Centralized Government

In July, the National Constituent Assembly issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which transformed the Roman Catholic Church in France into a branch of the secular state.

Olympe de Gouge's Declaration of the Rights of Women


Theme: Women's Progression

Olympe de Gouge's issued the Declaration of the Rights of Women which was basically a copy of the Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789) but added the word "Women".

Declaration of Pillnitz


Theme: Centralized Government/Absolutism

Emperor Leopold II of Austria issued this declaration on August 27th. The overthrow of Louis XVI and the establishment of republican government placed France at odds with the primarily monarchical and dynastic governments of the rest of Europe. In this declaration, Austria and Prussia issued this statement to European rulers to assist the French king to reestablish himself in power. France then actually declared war in April 1792.

Chapelier Law

June 14, 1791

Theme: Government repressing citizens

The new policies of economic freedom and uniformity disappointed both peasants and urban workers. In 1789, the Assembly placed the burden of proof on the peasants to rid themselves of the residual feudal dues for which compensation was to be paid. In 1791, the Assembly crushed the attempts of urban workers to protect their wages by enacting the Chapelier law, which forbade workers' association. The Assembly saw the efforts of workers to organize in such a way as to resemble the abolished guilds of the Old Regime.

The Consulate in France

1799 - 1804

Theme: Centralized Government

This effect ended the revolution in France.


1800 - 1850

Theme: Anti-Semitic

Theme: Art and Literature

Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

Population Explosion


this doesn't count toward my events

Otto von Bismarck

1815 - 1898

Theme: Centralization of Government

Bismarck was basically the driving force behind unification and the unity of the German Empire.

Jules Verne

1828 - 1905

Theme: Art and Literature (and Advances in Science)

Verne is considered the father of modern science fiction. During the Renaissance many European writers composed works, but Verne's "Five Weeks in a Balloon" tale so so well. Science fiction immediately entered popular culture.


1830 - 1840

Themes: Urbanization

As a result of the Cholera epidemics of the 1830s and 1840s that concerns with health and housing began to manifest itself. Because of an increase in population and lack of adequate sanitation, a lot of people lost their lives forcing governments to rethink reconstruction.

Julius Wellhausen (German)


Theme: Secularization

Wellhausen, along with Ernst Renan of France and Matthew Arnold of Great Britain contended that human authors had written and revised the books of the Bible with the problems of Jewish society and politics in mind.

Millicent Fawcett

1847 - 1929

Themes: Women's Progression

Fawcett led the moderate Nation Union of Women's Suffrage Societies. She believed Parliament would grand women the vote only if it were convinced they would be respectable and responsible in their political activity. By 1908, they could rally half a million women in London.

Her tactics were like ENGLISH LIBERALS

Public Health Act of 1848


Theme: Urbanization

The concern with public health led to the expansion of governmental power on various levels. This Act in Great Britain

Cavour begins unification process in Italy


Theme: Centralization of Government

Cavour, who was a liberal, rejected republicanism and believed Italy could govern themselves if they proved to be efficient. Basically, he was the leading figure in Italian Unification

Auguste Compte


Theme: Advancements in Science, Technology and Industry

Author of "The Positive Philosophy" (1830-1842)---> He argued that human thought had developed in three stages.
1. The Theological Stage
2. The Metaphysical Stage
3. The Positive Stage- in Comte's view, physical science had entered the positive phase.
He also devoloped POSITIVISM

Melun Act of 1851


Theme: Urbanization

In France, the Melun Act (1850–1851) was one of the first laws regarding Public Health. It was presented by the Viscount André de Melun.

It introduced a range of measures regarding unhealthy and unfit for habitations buildings. The law was actually optional, and was only fully applied in Paris by Baron Haussmann.

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858 - 1928

Theme: Women's Progression

Emmeline Pankhurst led a radical branch of British feminists. In 1903 she founded the Women's Social and Political Union. She advocated for the right to vote for Women and other basic rights.

Charle's Darwin


Theme: Advancements in Science, Technology, and Industry AND Secularization (kinda)

in 1859, Darwin published "On the Origin of Species" which basically contained his theory of evolution by natural selection which left out God's supremacy out of the process of life and this contradicted the bible narrative of the Creation but also undermine the argument for the existent of God and the whole concept of fixity in nature.

Advances in Primary Education

1860 - 1900

Theme: Secularization

More people than ever became drawn into the world of print culture during the latter part of the nineteenth century and literacy in Europe proved steadily from the 1860's onward as governments financed education.

The Education Act of 1870


Theme: Secularization

In Great Britain, this provided for state-supported schools run by elected school boards, whereas earlier the government had given small grants to religious schools. THIS is what the churches had feared- that future generation s would emerge from the new state-financed schools without any religious teaching. National states were often suspicious of the character of the RC Church and liberals disliked the dogma and the political privileges of the established churches.


1870 - 1878

Theme: Secularization

This was a failure. The German Catholic hierarchy wanted freedom for the churches guaranteed in the constitution and Bismark felt that the Roman Catholic Church and the Catholic Center Party threatened the unity of the German Empire.

The May Laws of 1873


Theme: Secularization

This applied to only Prussia and was meant to limit the role and power of the Church. Bismark required priests to be educated in German schools and universities and to pass state examinations. This also gave states the power to veto appointments of priests. ALSO, the legislation transferred the disciplinary power of the pope and the church over the clergy, to the state.

Ernest Renan

1880 - 1900

Theme: Secularization

This French intellectual writer believed Islam was a manifestation of the ancient Semitic mentality, like Judaism. Renan, and other sociologists, dismissed Islam as a religion and culture incapable of developing science and closed to new ideas.

Social Darwinism


Theme: Advancement In Science, Technology and Industry

Evolutionary ethics. Similar concepts of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, but this applies to humans and how human society progresses through competition. The weak will eventually die off while the powerful people at the top will continue to prosper

Anti-Semitism in Europe

1880 - 1940

Theme: Anti-Semitic

Anti-Semitic voices were first being heard towards the end of the 19th century, attributing the economic stagnation of the decade to Jewish bankers and financial interests. In the 1880s, organized anti-semitism erupted in Germany.

Married Women's Property Act


Theme: Women's Progression in Society

This allowed married women to own property in their own right. (Before, a women's identity was subsumed in her husbands' and they had no independent standing before the law and could not own property under their own name.)

The Dreyfus Affair

December 22, 1894

Theme- Anti-Semitic

On December 22, 1894, a French military court found Alfred Dreyfus guilty of passing secret info to the German Army. The evidence was garbage and was later revealed to be fake. French conservatism were on the defense and openly embraced anti-antisemitism. The greatest trauma of the Third Republic was this event.

The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS)

1897 - 1900

Theme: Women's Progression

In 1897, various local women's suffrage societies formed the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, under the leadership of Millicent Fawcett. The NUWSS wanted the vote for middle class property-owning women

The Education Act of 1902


Theme: Secularization

The government provided state support for both religious and nonreligious schools but imposed the same educational standards on each.

Women's Social and Political Union

1903 - 1917

Theme: Women's Progression

This was founded by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters in 1903. They and their followers known as suffragettes lobbied publicly and privately for extending the vote to women. They later resorted in violent tactics and hunger strucks after failing to move the government by 1910.

The Termination of the Napoleonic Concordat


Theme: Secularization

The Radical government of Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau, suppressed the religious orders. In 1905, the Napoleonic Concordat was terminated which officially separated the church and state.