AP Euro

Cultural and intellectual

Invention of the Printing Press

1440

Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, allowing for a faster spread of ideas to a wider range of readers.

Erasmus

1466

Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.

Copernicus

1473

Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology, going against the church's geocentric view.

Luther posts his 95 Thesis

1517

Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong, and begins the Reformation.

Diet of Worms

1521

It declared that Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.

Excommunication of Luther

1521

Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther for his attacks on the church. Luther refuses to recant his writings and hides with the help of a prince.

Zwingli

1522

He begins preaching ideas for reform and attacking some of the church customs like fasting of Lent.

Peasant Revolt

1524

A group of Reformist peasants start a violent revolt against the Aristocracy but Martin Luther condemned them for using violence.

John Calvin

1530

John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on predestination

Scientific Revolution

1543

Period of fast interest and growth of science and the scientific method.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic.

Francis Bacon

1561

English writer who analysed inductive reasoning (discovery through observation).

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants.

Edict of Nantes

1598

The Edict of Nantes was issued by Henry IV of France, granting civil freedoms to different Christian sects.

Agricultural Revolution

1600

Period where the growth in agriculture which allowed for better quality of life and eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution

Assassination of Henry IV of France

1610

Henry IV is assassinated by a Catholic fanatic for having tolerance of Protestants.

Galileo Galilei

1616

Italian astronomer and mathematician who used powerful telescopes to study the stars but was condemned by the church.

Rene Descartes

1641

17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method in which he wrote about deductive reasoning (discovery through “I think therefor I am”).

Principia Mathematica

1687

Book by Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution stating Newton’s Laws of Motion

Enlightenment

1700

A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosophers debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.

Frederick the Great

1750

He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects

Industrial Revolution

1750

A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion caused by the Agricultural revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, and the Steam Engine helped progress this period.

Voltaire

1763

Voltaire publishes “Treatise on Toleration” Despite attacking religious views, he also makes a case for toleration.

Joseph II

1780

He gave religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom

Declaration of the Rights of Man

1789

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted by French assembly during the French revolution affirms religious tolerance.

Telegraph

1837

The network of telegraphs allowed for instant communication all across England and later Europe

2nd Industrial Revolution

1860

An era characterized by expansion in technology like steal, oil, telegraphs, chemistry, and electricity

Internal Combustion engine

1876

The Otto type ICE was built and then integrated into automobiles

Electricity

1881

Michael Faraday created the first working incandescent light bulb

Political and Diplomatic

Ferdinand and Isabella marry

1469

King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations and create a more unified Spain

Concordat Of Bologna

1516

A french treaty that recognized the power of the pope and obtained the right to appoint all french bishops and abbots.

The Prince

1532

The Prince, by Machiavelli, is published, explaining what a good ruler should be which advocated a absolute monarchy.

Louis XIV

1661

An absolute monarch of france in the 16th century who created reforms to transfer the power of the aristocracy to the monarch.

Versaille

1678

A palace in france in which many aristocrats would live, run by Louis XIV to strengthen the power of the monarch.

Liberalism

1690

A political ideology characterized by wanting less government regulation in the economy and wider suffrage.

War of Spanish Succession

1701

A war started when France and Spain tried to unify but other countries stepped in to keep the balance of power.

Peter the Great

1721

He created reforms that made Russia a major power and built St. Petersburg to transfer power from the aristocracy to the monarch.

Nobles renounce feudal privilege

1789

In order to support the French Revolution and to avoid being persecuted by the peasants, French nobles revoke their feudal power.

Estates General

1789

The Estates General meets in Versailles, and ends in the Tennis Court oath, sparking the French Revolution

Storming of Bastille

1789

Bastille is captured by peasants, rebellion begins, one of the first signs of how large the revolution is.

Concordat of 1801

1801

The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII which solidified the Roman Catholic Church.

Napoleonic Code

1804

A system of laws created by Napoleon to govern all of the territory under his rule.

Congress of Vienna

1815

A group of the conservative leaders of the powers of Europe gathered to keep peace and stop revolutions.

Syndicalism

1847

A French working class group that believed in using strikes to achieve better working conditions

Karl Marx

1848

Created the Communist Manifesto which criticized the capitalist economy and wanted equality between classes.

Socialism

1848

A political movement influenced heavily by Marx that wanted class equality and more government responsibility in the welfare of the people

Mezzini

1850

A liberal nationalist in Italy who advocated for the unification of italian states.

Cavour

1852

An Italian nationalist leader who led the unification of the many Italian states into one unified Italy.

Emancipation of Serfs

1861

Alexander the Second passed a liberal reform that allowed the serfs to buy land from the aristocracy.

Bismarck

1870

A German conservative nationalist leader who led the unification of many German states into one unified German Confederation.

Antisemitism

1879

A movement popularized in Germany in 1879 that discriminates against the jews.

French Revolution

1889

Expanded the influence of modern political ideologies like liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, socialism, feminism, and secularism.

Fabianism

1900

Believed in slow socialist revolution through non violence and elections

Republicanism

1900

Republicanism called for the removal of absolute monarchies and universal suffrage, brought about by the french revolution.

Feminism

1918

A movement mainly focused on getting women the right to vote, achieved in 1918, which led to further extension of women's rights.

Social and Economic

Columbus

1492

An Italian explorer who accidentally discovered the Americas which began the age of Colonization

Colonization

1492

Beginning with Columbus many European powers began colonizing the world to increase capital.

Columbian exchange

1492

The exchange of goods between the Americas and Europe that introduced new things like corn, potatoes and cattle.

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

This was the Treaty that divided South America between the Spanish and the Portuguese

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

This was the Treaty that divided South America between the Spanish and the Portuguese

The East India Company

1602

The East India Company was founded in 1602 and was made to control trade on the seas.

Expansion of Tea

1750

Tea was used to keep workers attentive, which increased productivity

Adam Smith

1776

Published On the Wealth of Nations which proposed the idea of capitalism which will led the economic system of Europe.

Steam Engine

1781

The invention that freed industrialists from dependence on the energy of fast flowing streams, so that by 1800 there was every incentive to build new factories in urban areas.

First Settlement in Australia

1788

The first colony in Australia was made by the English in Sydney, Australia.

Urbanization

1801

People moved to the cities to find work and the amount of people grew rapidly

Haitian Independence

1804

The French colony haiti staged a revolt against the landlords and were successful. This led Napoleon to sell the Louisiana purchase to the U.S.

Railroads

1825

The railroad system allowed for more transportation of goods which created more city jobs.

Cholera Epidemic

1830

Diseased water increased the death rate and caused concerns about health and housing

Working conditions

1830

Poor urban working conditions created more tension between the bourgeois and the proletarians.

1832 Reform Act

1832

Expanded voting rights to about 1 in 6 males (wealthy and land owning)

Trade Unions

1835

Proletarians joined together in the interest of making better working conditions and wages

Public Health Act of 1848

1848

English act to increase sanitation and health in response to the cholera outbreak

Georges Haussmann

1850

Placed in charge of the rebuilding of Paris by Napoleon III

Wage Increase

1850

Economic growth allowed for large wage increases until 1914

French Melun Act

1851

A French health act mainly put in place in paris that introduced health codes for buildings

First International

1864

An international proletarian trade union group created to make working conditions better

1867 Reform Act

1867

Included working males into the group of people that could vote

Public Health act of 1875

1875

A health act in England that required all new houses to have running water and a drainage system

1884 Representation of the People Act

1884

Gave most male agricultural workers the right to vote.

Electric Streetcar

1890

This invention in the 1890s was instrumental in public transportation in Europe. They became very popular.

Urban Planning

1900

Paris took the lead in creating a planned city with wide roads which helped suppress revolutions