AP European History Timeline

1300 CE- 2000 CE



1300 - Approx. 1500

The middle age intellectual movement that focused on the harmony between faith and reason.


July 20, 1304 - July 19, 1374

An Italian scholar, poet, and humanist whose poems were addressed to Laura-- the ideal beloved. Coined the term Renaissance and began the poetic subtype "lyrical poetry". Regarded as the greatest scholar of his age and his death is sometimes used as the beginning for the Italian Renaissance


1311 - 1500

A navigational chart of the European Middle Ages first produced in Genoa by Petrus Vesconte

Edward III

November 13, 1312 - June 21, 1377

Reigned between 1327 and his death. Known for being in constant war with France, in 1340 he assumed the title of the king of France-- beginning of the 100 year war. After his wife Philippa passed away in 1369, it is assumed that he fell under the influence of Alice Perrers, his mistress, who convinced him to summon the "Good Parliament" in 1376. There Perrers ended up being severely criticized, and because of the outrage over the high taxes Edward III had put in place new Councillors were imposed on the king until the heir, the "Black Prince" died. While Edward III was away in France his second son John to rule and John managed to reverse the "Good Parliament"'s efforts.

Leonardo Bruni

1370 - 1444

Humanist, historian, statesman. "First modern hisotrian".

Italian Renaissance

Approx. 1375 - Approx. 1527

The Italian cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. It marks the transitional period between the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the "Modern Age". In Italy this is known as "Rinascimento"

Filippo Brunelleschi

1377 - 1446

A designer and architect who is recognized as the first modern engineer. Oldest among the founding fathers of the Renaissance.

Western Schism

1378 - 1417

Rival factions of Cardinals elected Popes in both Rome and Avignon. Erupted as a result of a desire best voiced by Petrarch and St. Catherine of Siena to see the papacy returned to Rome. Gregory XI attempted this and that led to the beginning of the Schism, with Urban VI's high handedness exacerbating it. In 1417 the Council of Constance ended the schism by deposing/accepting the resignations of the three rival popes.

Brethren of the Common Life

1380 - 1650

A Roman Catholic pietist religious community founded in the Netherlands by Gerard Groote, who preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ. Known in particular for not falling pray to the clerical immorality, ignorance, absenteeism, pluralism, simony, and other vices that plagued the church at the time.


1386 - 1466

Italian Renaissance sculptor who created David

Cosimo de Medici

September 27, 1389 - August 1, 1464

The founder of one of the main lines of the Medici family which ruled Florence from 1434 to 1537. Known for supporting education and the arts, and made many business connections throughout Europe.

Jan van Eyck

1390 - 1441

Early Netherlandish painter. One of the most significant Northern Renaissance artists.

Johannes Gutenberg

Approx. 1395 - 1468

Invented the European printing press

Miasma theory


Remaining popular until the germ theory, this theory stated that people contract disease when they breathe bad odors

Francesco Sforza

July 23, 1401 - March 8, 1466

The duke of Milan who founded a century long dynasty. He was a condottiere-- a leader of a professional mercenary company contracted by the Italian city states and the Papacy at the time.

Charles VII

February 22, 1403 - July 22, 1461

Also called Charles the Well-Served or Victorious, he was the king of France from 1422 to 1461, and, with the help of Joan of Arc, drove the English from French soil. Known for reviving the French monarchy, but also for having incredible difficulty financing France due to the States General refusing to apply any high taxes; all of France lived on loans and favors.

Leon Battista Alberti

1404 - 1472

author, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher, and cryptographer during the Italian Renaissance.

Lorenzo Valla

1407 - August 1, 1457

An Italian humanist, philosopher, and literary critic. Very much against medieval traditions, anticipated the views of later Protestant Reformers. Published "On Pleasure", which defended the disliked Ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, who said that with the attainment of virtue any pain was lost. Valla was very anti-Stoicism. He was eventually expelled from Rome due to his attack on the Vernacular Latin used by the very popular lawyer Bartolus.

Pope Alexander VI

January 1, 1431 - August 18, 1503

A member of the Borgia family, he became pope on August 11, 1492. Reformed papal finances and pursued a war against the Ottoman Turks. Did not get along with Charles VIII. He was a patron of the arts. Best known for being scandalous due to his relentless pursuit of political goals and unremitting efforts to aggrandize his family. Machiavelli depicted him as horribly corrupt and he is considered one of the "bad popes"

Masrsilio Ficino

1433 - 1499

An Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance. Wrote the Platonic Theology and Three Books on Life.

Medici Family

1434 - 1737

The House of Medici ran on commerce, banking, political power, and religion. Cosimo de Medici began the rise to power,and the last Medici ruler died without an heir in 1737

Lorenzo de Medici

January 1, 1449 - April 9, 1492

A member of the Medici family who is known for giving power to the lower classes of Italy but in doing so letting his family business (banking) decline

Girolamo Savonarola

September 21, 1452 - May 23, 1498

An Italian Catholic preacher, reformer, and martyr, who was renowned for speaking out against tyrannical rulers and corruption, particularly within the clergy. After the 1494 overthrow of the Medici family in Florence politics, Savonarola became the sole leader and set up the Italian city-state as a democratic republic. Both the Duke of Milan and Pope Alexander VI worked actively against him, the latter attempting to send numerous restraints against him, all of which were ignored.

Peace of Lodi

April 9, 1454

A treaty between Venice and Milan which ended the war of succession to the Milanese duchy to the benefit of Francesco Sforza. Marked the beginning of 40 years of peace between all Italian city states.

Maximilian I

1459 - 1519

Son of Frederick III, he was the Holy Roman Empire and his marriage with Mary of Burgundy united the Austrian Empire with Burgundy and the Netherlands, making the Habsburgs the strongest ruling family in the HRE.

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

1463 - 1494

Italian Renaissance noble philosopher. He defended 900 theses on religious & philosophy. Similar in beliefs to More and Erasmus, who came after him, and Lorenzo de Medici and Augustine of Hippo, who came before him. Wrote the Oration of the Dignity of Man

Pico Della Mirandola

February 24, 1463 - November 17, 1494

Wrote "On the Dignity of Man"-- stated that man was made in the image of god before the fall & in the image of Christ after the Resurrection. Man is hierarchically between beasts and angels. Nothing is impossible for man.

Marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon


Niccolo Machiavelli

May 3, 1469 - June 21, 1527

Machiavelli served as a diplomat in the Florentine Republic during the Medici family's exile. When they returned to power in 1512, they promptly dismissed him and he was immediately, though briefly, jailed. Based on his experience as a diplomat he went on to write "The Prince" and is considered the father of modern political theory.

Frederick of Saxony

1474 - 1510

Sheltered Martin Luther when Charles V declared him an outlaw.

Star Chamber

Approx. 1475 - Approx. 1641

English Court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster. Composed of Privy Councillors and common law judges, its goal was to supplement the judicial activities of common law and equity courts in England.

Baldassare Castiglione

December 6, 1478 - February 2, 1529

Best known for his dialogue "The Book of the Courtier", Castiglione is thought to have created the very rule book for what made a Renaissance socialite.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

A German professor of theology and former monk who rejected the teachings and practices of the Late Medieval Christian Church and began the Protestant line of denominations, in particular the Lutheran denomination, which he himself founded.


1483 - 1520

Very famous Italian Renaissance painter and architect during the High Renaissance. Big on the Ideal of human grandeur, he painted the School of Athens.

Franscesco Guicciardini

1483 - 1540

Italian statesman and historian & well known for his relationship with Niccolo Machiavelli-- they were friends, but did not agree as much in their philosophy. Wrote the History of Italy

Ulrich Zwingli

1484 - 1531

A Swiss priest who joined the Reformation in 1519 and denounced indulgences, monasticism, and celibacy. Believed the laity should read the Bible.

Henry VIII

1491 - 1547

King of England from 1509 to his death. Founded the Church of England, was the first English King of Ireland, and had a nominal claim to the kingdom of France. Most well known for his long line of wives and his failure to produce a healthy male heir. By the time he died, he only had one son, Edward, who was nine and died not even a decade after assuming the crown, leaving his oldest sister Mary in charge despite his attempts to pass the crown on to his relative Jane Grey.


1493 - 1541

Swiss German philosopher, physician, botanist, astrologer, and general occultist. Founded toxicology.

Juan Luis Vives

1493 - 1540

A scholar and humanist who spent most of his adult life in the Netherlands despite being born and raised in Spain.

Italian War of 1494-98

1494 - 1498

The first Italian War was the opening phase of a series of Italian Wars. It pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the allied Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.

Invasion of Italy by Charles VIII of France


Charles V

1500 - 1558

The Holy Roman Emperor, king of Spain, and archduke of Austria. He had a great deal of trouble keeping his empire together, particularly because he was extremely anti-protestant. Also, he had increasing pressure from the Ottoman & French empires. Eventually he yielded his claims to the Netherlands and Spain to his son Philip II and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I. Also declared Martin Luther an outlaw.

Gerolamo Cardano

1501 - 1576

Italian polymath, mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler.

Sigismund I of Poland

1506 - 1548

Banned Luther's teachings, limiting the success of Protestantism in Poland.

Andrea Palladio

1508 - 1580

Andrea Palladio was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, became the most influential individual in the history of architecture.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

An influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. Founded Calvinism and ran Geneva. His big thing was predestination.

The fifth Lateran Ecumenical Council

1512 - 1517

Convoked by Pope Julius II in response to a council summoned at Pisa by a group of cardinals who were hostile to the pope. Reform of the church was the chief concern & the council restored peace between warring Christian rulers and sanctioned a new concordat with France. Repudiated declarations of the Councils of Constance and Basil that made church councils superior to the pope.

Andreas Vesalius

1514 - 1564

Anatomist, physician, and author of a good number of books on human anatomy, including De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Founder of modern human anatomy.

Teresa of Avila

1515 - 1582

A Spanish mystic, saint, and Carmelite nun. She wrote during the Counter Reformation. She reformed the Carmelite Order and is considered a founder of the Discalced Carmelites along with John of the Cross.

Concordat of Bologna


An agreement between French King Francis I and Pope Leo X. It marked a stage in the evolution of the Gallican church, and superseded the 1438 Pragmatic Sanction of the Bourges. It permitted the Pope to collect all the income that the Catholic Church made in France, while the French King had his right to tithe the clerics and restrict their right to appeal confirmed, as well as his right to nominate appointments into the church, however the Pope was allowed to veto such appointments.

Mary I

1516 - 1558

The extremely Catholic Queen of England who earned the nickname "bloody Mary" from her numerous executions of anyone who had previously followed her father's religion, Anglicanism. Married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain in 1556.

95 Theses

October 31, 1517

Also called the "Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences". Legend has it that Martin Luther defiantly nailed a copy of this pamphlet to the (metal) door of the Wittenburg Castle church. Specifically wrote it to protest the selling indulgences, or payments to ensure family members got to heaven in a timely manner.


Approx. 1520 - Approx. 1590

A philosophy & Art Style with a focus on religion, dark colors, odd lighting, and unbalanced, twisted figures.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder

1525 - 1569

Netherlandish Renaissance painter known for his landscape and peasant scenes. "Peasant Bruegel"

HRE sacks Rome


In 1527 the forces of the Holy Roman Empire sacked Rome.

Philip II

May 21, 1527 - September 13, 1598

King of Spain who failed to suppress a revolt in the Netherlands & lost the "Invincible Armada" in the attempted invasion of England in 1588.

Jean Bodin

1530 - 1596

A political philosopher, member of the Parisian Parlement, Toulouse professor of law, and French jurist. Came up with the theory on sovereignty and wrote a book about it.


Approx. 1530 - Approx. 1620

French Calvinists

Elizabeth I

1533 - 1603

The Queen of England and Ireland from 1558 to her death. Known as the Virgin Queen, she never married to avoid losing control as she was female. She was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Upon her sister's death and her own ascension to the throne, Philip of Spain tried numerous times to coerce or force her into marriage, and when that failed he sent the Spanish Armada, which she successfully repelled, turning England into the most powerful European Nation.

Edward VI

1537 - 1553

King of England and Ireland from 1547 until his death. Crowned at the age of nine. His uncle, sir Edward Seymour, actually ran the government. Attempted to pass the crown on to his relative lady Jane Grey for religious reasons, but Edward's older Catholic sister Mary executed Jane to secure the crown.

El Greco

1541 - 1614

Painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

An ecumenical council that was the embodiment of the Catholic Counter-reformation

Book of Common Prayer


Published originally under the English reign of Edward Vi, it was a product of the Anglican church’s break from Rome.

Pieter Brueghel the Younger

1564 - 1636

Bruegel the elder's son, he was a Flemish painter known for copying his father's works as well as his original compositions

James VI and I

1566 - 1625

King of Scotland as James VI and England and Ireland as James I when his crowning unionized the nations from 1603 to his death.

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. Laws of planetary motion.

Peter Paul Rubens

1577 - 1640

A noble Flemish Baroque painter who was a huge proponent of the extravagance that denoted the style. Also a large part of the counter reformation.

William Harvey

1578 - 1657

English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.

Philip III of Spain

1578 - 1621

Known for peaceful foreign policy in Western Europe & expelling the Moriscos from Spain & Portugal.

Hugo Grotius

1583 - 1645

Dutch jurist who laid the foundations for international law from natural law. Wrote On the Law of War and Peace.

War of the Three Henrys

1584 - 1589

The eighth and final conflict in the French Wars of Religion. It was fought between Henry of Lorraine, the Duke of Guise and leader of the Catholic League, who was funded and supported by Philip II of Spain; Henry III of France, who was backed by royalists and politiques; and Henry of Navarre, the leader of the Huguenots and heir-presumptive, who was supported by Elizabeth I of England as well as the protestant princes of Germany. The latter won simply by outliving the others. The war itself was instigated by Henry of Lorraine and Philip II of Spain to keep France from interfering with Spain’s planned invasion of England.

Thomas Hobbes

April 5, 1588 - December 4, 1679

Known in particular for being a boy's pet tiger, but also for his rather negative perception of people which could be seen in his most famous work, "Leviathan", written in 1651. An opponent of John Locke, he was an English philosopher who viewed the government as a method to ensure collective security. He was a materialist (only material things are real), and and absolutist. Saw humans as naturally bad, not good.

Artemisia Gentileschi

1593 - 1653

Italian Baroque painter.

Gustavus Aldolphus of Sweden

1594 - 1632

King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632. Credited with making Sweden a Great Power.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

1598 - 1680

Italian sculptor and architect who was the leading sculptor of his age and the founder of the Baroque style of architecture.

Charles I

1600 - 1649

Monarch of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 until he was executed in 1649 because the Parliament believed he was trying to reestablish Catholicism.


Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1750

An art style that used dramatic light, variety of objects, and rich color. Architecture-wise, it describes buildings that are plain on the outside, but opulent within, often with gold leaf.

Louis XIII of France

1601 - 1643

Monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as both King of Navarre and France until the two merged in 1620. After that he was just the king of France.

Philip IV

1605 - 1665

The King of Portugal and Spain, he began ruling in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death, but lost Portugal in 1640 due to the Spanish-French War, part of the Thirty-Years War.


1606 - 1669

Dutch etcher & painter. One of the greatest painters and print makers in both Dutch and European history.

Bank of Amsterdam


The first modern central bank

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

A series of wars fought throughout Europe for a variety of reasons. Ended with the Treaty of Westphalia.

John Locke

August 29, 1632 - October 28, 1704

An English philosopher, he founded philosophical empiricism and political liberalism. His work inspired the constitution, and his political work was set in the idea that there is a "social contract" between citizens and state. He emphasized toleration. Most of his ideas were thought up in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, when the English people were attempting to justify bringing in William and Mary.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

A series of civil wars in France occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War.


Approx. 1650 - 2000

Begun by John Locke, liberalism was made up of the principle ideas of liberty and equality cared for by a representative, not autocratic, government with a constitution and shared power. Liberalism had an overall positive outlook on humanity and believed that authority was derived from the people and that there should be equality under law. Economically liberalism was laissez-faire

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

After James II ascended in 1685, his Catholicism alienated the majority protestant population. By 1687 he had issued the "Declaration of Indulgence" which suspended penal laws against dissenters, and by 1688 he ordered that it must be read allowed on Sundays. When the archbishop of Canterbury and six other bishops were persecuted for speaking out against him, tensions had almost reached a high. Finally, seven prominent Englishmen wrote William of Orange to come over and take over with his wife.

Frederick the Great

1712 - 1786

Frederick II was the King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who focused primarily on revamping the Prussian military.

Steam Engine


Thomas Newcomen came up with the first successful (commercially) steam engine. Later, in 1781, James Watt came up with a more effective one. To this day, steam power is still used in many cases, though one of the first ways was locomotives.

Adam Smith

June 5, 1723 - July 17, 1790

Considered the founder of capitalism, he was a Scottish social philosopher & political economist. Known primarily for "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations", which was written in 1776, he came up with such ideas as the "invisible hand"


Approx. 1729 - 2000

Generally seen as having been founded by Edmund Burke, Conservatism supported an autocratic, absolute ruler. Very much pro-tradition, censorship, mercantilism, and old wealth. Shared Hobbes's view of human nature

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

August 1, 1744 - December 18, 1829

A French naturalist who asserted that all forms of life had come from evolution-- including characteristics like a good sense of humor.

Jeremy Bentham

1748 - 1832

Created the idea of the "greatest good for the greatest number"

Industrial Revolution

Approx. 1750 - Approx. 1850

Began in 18th century Britain. It had three main areas: technological, socioeconomic, and cultural. With the inventions and innovations with iron, steel, coal, the steam engine, electricity, petroleum, the internal combustion engine, the spinning jenny, the power loom, the factory system, division of labor, the locomotive, steamship, automobile, airplane, telegraph, radio, and mass production.

Count Henri de Saint-Simon

October 17, 1760 - May 19, 1825

An influential socialist thinker

Muhammad Ali

1769 - August 2, 1849

he was the founder of the dynasty that ruled Egypt for a very long time. Known for modernizing Egypt. By 1815, he had converted most of Egypt's land into state land, and on the land he improved Egypt's irrigation system, introduced cotton, and reorganized the administrative structure of the government to ensure strict control of the economy. He also created Western style schools to train doctors, engineers, vets, and other specialists, as well as sending education missions to European countries. He also attempted to expand, but that didn't work out so well.

Strum and Drang

Approx. 1770 - Approx. 1889

Two early German romantics who exalted nature, feeling, and individualism.

William Wordsworth

7 Apr 1770 - 23 April 1850

A romantic poet who was published in the Lyrical Ballads beside Coleridge

Georg Hegel

August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831

he posited that each age was characterized by a dominant set of ideas which in turn produces opposing ideas and a new synthesis; history is a dialectic process of change. His work influenced Karl Marx.


17 December 1770 - 26 March 1827

A great romantic composer

Charles Fourier

1772 - 1837

Envisioned a socialist utopia where women would have complete emancipation. He was extremely critical of middle class life and saw marriage as a type of prostitution, so his utopia included free unions based on love and sexual freedom.

Klemens von Metternich

1773 - 1859

The foreign minister of Austria, he was very much against the new liberal ideas and issued the Carlsbad Decrees in 1819. He saw liberalism as something that caused pain and suffering, and thought that national self-determination didn't work either. This worked against Austria because while it was strong internationally due to its size the many small nationalities within it were not united.

Micheal Faraday

September 22, 1791 - August 25, 1867

An English scientist who discovered magnetic induction, diamagnetism, and electrolysis

Matthew C. Perry

April 10, 1794 - March 4, 1858

A US naval officer who headed an expedition in 1853 & 4 to force Japan to enter into trade and diplomatic relations with the West after more than two centuries of isolation. Began the Meiji Restoration.

Charles Lyell

1797 - 1875

Finally discredited the view that the earth's surface had been formed from short-lived cataclysms, but rather a slow formation

William I of Prussia

March 22, 1797 - March 9, 1888

A "tough minded" king who came after Frederick William IV. He was convinced that Prussia needed major army reforms and wished to double the size of the army.

Auguste Comte

January 19, 1798 - September 5, 1857

Full Name: Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Xavier Comte. A French philosopher who founded sociology and positivism.

Honore de Balzac

1799 - 1857

Wrote about postrevolutionary French life in books like The Human Comedy and Le Pere Goriot


Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

It was in part a revolt against the Enlightenment and the industrial revolution and promoted unrestrained emotion, imagination, and spontaneity. Romantics of the time were known for suicide, duels to the death, and madness. They rejected materialism and focused on nature. Lots and lots of poetry,


Approx. 1800 - 2000

Nationalism sought to make the territory of a "people" coincide with the boundaries of a nation state. It promoted a standardized language and had a "we-they" outlook.


Approx. 1800 - 2000

An economic philosophy which called for unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference. Called the philosophy of liberalism.

Edwin Chadwick

1800 - 1890

The first to introduce public health laws, he stated that it was possible to bring fresh water in to clean cities & that it was the key to preventing disease.

Vincenzo Gioberti

April 5, 1801 - November 26, 1852

A Catholic Priest who advocated for a federation of existing Italian states under the pope.

Giuseppe Mazzini

1805 - 1872

An Italian politician, journalist, and activist for the unification of Italy and spearheaded the Italian Revolutionary Movement. He was radical and idealistic and believed that Italy should be reorganized into a centralized democratic republic with universal male suffrage.

Alexis de Tocqueville

1805 - 1859

A moderate republican in the Constituent Assembly of France (which had cancelled the government workshops in Paris and later caused a violent uprising) he wrote a book called "Democracy in America" and predicted the overthrow of Louis Phillipe's government.

John Stuart Mill

1806 - 1873

Wrote "On Liberty" about the problem of how to protect the rights of individuals and minorities in an electoral system.Wanted to safeguard individual differences and unpopular opinions.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

1807 - 1882

An Italian Superpatriot who went past Cavour's idea of a unified northern Italy to a completely unified Italy. He wished to "liberate" the kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Louis Napoleon

April 20 1808 - January 9 1873

The nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, he won the December 1848 election by a landslide. Created a semi-authoritarian regime.

Napoleon III

April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873

The Nephew of Napoleon I, he was the president of the Second Republic of France, and after the parliament refused to extend his reign and he staged a takeover, the emperor of France. He gave France universal male suffrage, power over the national assembly, and improved social welfare. Unfortunately his foreign policy left much to be desired, even leading it into defeat in the Franco-German War.

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882

English naturalist whose scientific theory of evolution by natural selection had huge consequences.

Pierre Joseph Proudhon

January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865

Wrote "What is Property?" in 1840, in which he stated that property was nothing but theft. He feared the power of the state and was in effect an anarchist.

Georges-Eugene Haussmann

27 March 1809 - 11 January 1891

Under Napoleon III he began the urban planning of Paris, using wide, tree-lined streets, building codes, parks, open areas, plumbing, and public transportation.

Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

August 10, 1810 - June 6, 1861

The dominant figure in the Sardinian Government. The backer of Italian unification.

Louis Blanc

1811 - 1882

He created the Organization of Work in 1839 and believed that workers should fight for universal voting rights but do so peacefully. He also wanted the state to set up government backed workshops and guarantee full employment.

The Constitutional Charter of 1814


A charter created by Louis XVIII in response to pressure which put in place a liberal constitution, protected the economic and political gains of the French Revolution, permitted intellectual and artistic freedom, and created a dual house parliament. It did, however, limit voting to the 100,000 wealthiest males. (At the time, France had a population of 30,000,000)

the First Peace of Paris

30 May 1814

The result of the Congress of Vienna, it gave France its 1792 boundaries and didn't require reparations. Because the monarchy was not in charge at the time, the relationship between France and the allies was not damaged.

Congress of Vienna

November 1, 1814 - June 8, 1815

The allied countries Russia, Prussia, Austria, and great Britain met and agreed to restore the Bourbon dynasty to the French throne & overall apply a lenient policy to France. They did create "barriers" to prevent France from rising up again. In the congress Belgium and Holland were united under the Dutch and Prussia gained some of France's eastern border. Overall, there was a lot of concern over the European "balance of power" and each country received compensation in the form of territory.

Otto Von Bismark

1815 - 1898

A Prussian conservative aristocrat who exemplified "Realpolitik" with his blood and iron way of ruling. He was the head of the ministry in Prussia since 1862.

Holy Aliance


An alliance formed by Austria, Prussia, and Russia as a reaction against liberalism. It was the first step in the crusade against the dual revolution and was led by Metternich of Austria. It became a symbol of the repression of liberal and revolutionary movements all over Europe.

French Utopian Socialism

1815 - Approx. 1850

A radical doctrine which called for the reorganization of society and economic planning with everyone being economically equal. No private property.

German Confederation

1815 - 1866

38 independent German States were a part of it, including Prussia and Austria, the latter of whom would dominate the group assemblies and was particularly focused on anti-liberalism.

Corn Laws

1815 - 1846

Existed to regulate foreign trade. In effect, they prohibited the importation of foreign grain. It greatly benefited the aristocracy but was detrimental to the peasants and resulted in protests and demonstrations by urban laborers.

The Second Peace of Paris

20 November 1815

Signed after Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo. Still lenient towards France, and Louis XVIII was re-restored to his throne, but France lost more territory and had to pay an indemnity as well as support an army of occupation for a period of five years.

Quadruple Alliance

November 20, 1815

Composed of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain. They met at the congress of Vienna and hoped to combine leniency towards France with strong defensive measures. They agreed to meet periodically to discuss their common interests. Marked the start of the European "Congress system"

Jacob Burkhardt

1818 - 1897

A Swiss historian of art and culture who came up with the idea of the Renaissance as its own period. Extremely famous for his historiographal ideas.

Alexander II

1818 - 1881

The Russian tsar & the instigator of many modernizing reforms who was assassinated in 1881.

Karl Marx

May 5, 1818 - March 14, 1883

Wrote the Communist Manifesto, which became the bible of socialism. the interests of the middle & working class were inevitably opposing because one class was always exploiting the other and modern industry made that particularly true. Eventually the proletariat would revolt and overthrow the bourgeoisie because profits were stolen wages and socialism was the next viable step in history,

Jacob Burckhardt

May 25, 1818 - August 8, 1897

A Swiss historian of art and culture who wrote "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy" which became a model for the treatment of cultural history in general.

Six Acts


In 1817 the British government temporarily suspended the right to peaceably assemble and the right of habeas corpus. In 1819 they placed controls on a heavily taxed press to elimate mass meetings.

Battle of Peterloo


A large orderly protest against the Six Acts which was bloodily broken up by armed cavalry in England. In demonstrated GB's determinism to repress.

Carlsbad Decrees

20 September 1819

Metternich required the 38 German member states to get rid of "subversive" ideas in their universities and newspapers. The decree also established a permanent spy network.

Herbert Spencer

1820 - 1903

A philosopher who believed that the poor were the ill-fated weak-- major Social Darwinist.

The Conference at Troppau


The Troppau protocall stated that the Holy Alliance would take action against any revolutions and states that had undergone revolutions would be excluded from the European alliance & not recognized. Both Britain & France refused to accept the protocol, and it seriously hurt the Quadruple Alliance

Gustave Flaubert

December 12, 1821 - May 8, 1880

An influential French novelist & leading literary realist.

Louis Pasteur

1822 - 1895

Came up with the germ theory and the process of heating liquids to "pasteurize" and kill germs

Hermann Baumgarten

April 28, 1825 - June 19, 1893

A history professor & member of the liberal opposition in Germany who repented his "sins" in 1866

Joseph Lister

1827 - 1912

Pioneer of antiseptic surgery, he applied the antiseptic principle to operating utensils-- starilization

Leo Tolstoy

September 9, 1828 - November 20, 1910

A Russian Count writer who is regarded as one of the greatest writers of all time.

Reform Bill of 1832

June 7, 1832

An English act to amend the representation of the people-- new industrial areas gained representation in the Commons and electoral districts with few or unwanted voters were eliminated. The number of voters increased by 50%


1834 - 2000

The Customs Union of Germany founded to stimulate trade & increase income within the major states. Extremely successful, but out of the German Confederation it excluded only Austria.

People's Charter


In England this created universal male suffrage, secret ballots, wages for Parliament members, equal representation, and annual parliaments. It also took away the property qualification for parliament.

First Opium War

1839 - 1842

Fought between Britain and China because of China's attempts to suppress the opium trade. This was because the British were illegally importing opium into the nation and much of China's populous was addicted. Ended with the Treaty of Nanking, which was signed on August 29th.

Anti-Corn Law League

1839 - 1846

The laboring and manufacturing class joined to call for universal male suffrage in a fight against the Corn laws. Ended when the corn laws were repealed in 1846.

Emile Zola

1840 - 1902

He was the giant of the realist movement in literature.

Treaty of Nanking

August 29, 1842

China was forced to give Britain quite a bit of money, cede Hong Kong, and increase the number of treaty ports where the British could trade by four to bring the number up to five. On October 8, 1843 Britain also forced China to give Britain extraterritoriality and favored-nation status.

Alexander III

1845 - 1894

A determined reactionary and tsar of Russia.

10 Hours Act


One of a number of English acts in 1847 to improve labor conditions-- this one limited the workday for women and children to ten hours.

Revolutions of 1848 in Austria

1848 - 1849

A violent revolution which began in Hungary where the aristocracy seemed weak. ON March 20 serfdom was abolished and the coalition of March was weakened by infighting amongst nationalities. The Archduchess Sophia organized the aristocracy against the June revolution and won while Nicholas I of Russia sent in troops to subdue Hungary. In the end the Habsburgs ruled it as a conquered territory.

The Red Shirts

Approx. April 1848 - Approx. 1871

The guerrilla band of ~1,000 that attacked Sicily and was successful in marching towards Naples until they were intercepted by Cavour's Sardinian forces.

June Days

June 1848 - July 1848

A spontaneous and violent uprising of the French lower class in response to the government dissolving the national workshops in Paris. Considered a class war, after 3 days more than 10,000 people were injured or killed. Socialists were slaughtered in their attempted coup and the republican army came out triumphant.

Sergei Witte

1849 - 1915

The smart minister of finance in Russia who believed industrialization would improve Russia. Pushed railroad building, high tariffs to protect Russian industry and foreign investment.


Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1950

Everything should be portrayed in art exactly how it is. Focused on everyday life-- a rejection of romanticism. Determinist.

Social Darwinism

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1950

Misapplication of Darwinist theories to nations and the rich and poor.


Approx. 1850

Invented by Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson, this field investigated the relationship between heat and mechanical energy

Schleswig-Holstein Issue


The German National Assembly and Denmark battled over the Schleswig and Holstein provinces. The Denmark King wanted to integrate the provinces into his nation state, but the Germans living in them revolted.

Second Opium War

1856 - 1860

While the Qing government was trying to put down the Taiping Rebellion the British began a new war with China in order to extend their trading rights. This war ended with the Beijing Convention.

Madame Bovary


The frenchman Gustave Flaubert's debut novel.

The Bessemer Process


In 1856, for the first time, Henry Bessemer demonstrated the Bessemer process, which improved steel to a near unimaginable level at the time.

Sigmund Freud

May 6, 1856 - Sep 23, 1939

INSANE MAN. Considered the father of modern psychology due to the ideas derived from his false ones, he looked for mental problems that stemmed from childhood. Oedipus complex.

William II

1859 - 1941

The Emperor of Germany beginning in 1890 who wanted to keep power for himself so forced Bismarck to resign. Continued passing social security laws, but didn't get people to denounce socialism.

Beijing Convention


A result of the second Chinese war which forced the Chinese to give up the southern portion of the Kowloon Peninsula, which is adjacent to Hong Kong.

Peter Stolypin

1862 - 1911

The chief minister of Russia who, while in power, pushed agrarian reforms to break down collective village ownership of land and encourage peasants to be more enterprising. Encouraged free economy.

Danish War


A war between Denmark and a coalition of Austria and Prussia. Denmark had attempted to bring Schleswig-Holstein into the Danish State against the will of the German Confederation.


1864 - 1896

Local assemblies in Russia elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages, and noble landowners. Dealt with local problems.Little real influence.

Germ Theory


theorized by Louis Pasteur, this theory stated that living organisms were the cause of disease

North German Confederation

1866 - 1871

A federation of 22 previously independent states north of the Main River led by Prussia.

Seven Weeks' War


A war between Prussia and Austria in which railroads and breechloading needle guns were used. Prussia offered generous peace terms to Russia, who agreed to withdraw from German affairs. The North German Confederation was formed.

Indemnity Bill


Bismarck's "olive branch" to the middle class parliament in 1866 after he reformed spending & the army without their consent. Gave him permission after the fact.

Austro-Prussian War

14 June 1866 - 23 August 1866

The Austro-Prussian War, also called the seven weeks war, was a war between Prussia and Austria, Bavaria, Saxony, and Hanover. Prussia won, and excluded Austria from Germany, however the peace terms were overall much better for Austria than they otherwise could have been and that helped with later Austro-German relations.

Suez Canal


A canal which connects the Mediterranean and the Red seas. It is now considered the separation between Africa and Asia. It provided the shortest distance between Europe and the Indian Revolution.

War and Peace


Count Leo Tolstoy's most well known work, which wrote about a romance in Russia during Napoleon's invasion.


1870 - 1878

Bismark' and the National Liberals's attack on the Catholic Church. Withdrawn in 1878 for economic reasons.

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Bismarck crafted this war in order to drive the Southern German States under Prussian control. Started under the pretext of the issue of the king of Spain. Won decisively by Prussia, consolidating Germany and creating strong German nationalism.

Franco-German War

July 19,1870 - May 10, 1871

This war, also called the Franco-Prussian war, was a war between a coalition of German states led by Prussia and France. This is deemed to mark the end of French hegemony, or leadership, of continental Europe as well as the unification of Germany. Prussia imposed very negative penalties on France, leading to tense relations between the two nations.

Treaty of Frankfurt


The treaty ending the Franco-Prussian War where the German Empire imposed a harsh peace on France-- reparation of 5,000,000,000 francs & Prussia gaining control of Alsace and Lorraine.

Paris Commune


A liberal revolutionary government in France. Crushed by the National Assembly.

Theodore Dreiser

August 27, 1871 - December 28, 1945

An american journalist/novelist who was a naturalist.

Congress of Berlin


An assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire that gathered in order to reorganize the countries of the Balkans.

Maxim Gun


Invented by Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1883, it was the first recoil-operated machine gun and the reason that Europe was so effective at imperialism. In fact, there was a famous quote: "Whatever happens we have got the maxim gun and they have not."

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

A formalization of the Scramble for Africa. It regulated European colonization and trade in Africa after being called for by Portugal. Otto von Bismark organized it, and the end-- the "General Act of the Berlin Conference"--resolved to end slavery by prohibiting it, confirmed the Democratic Republic of the Congo as the property of Leopold II, made the Niger and Congo rivers free for ship traffic, pushed forth the principle of effectivity (you must live there to claim there), and identified regions where each European power had an exclusive right to "pursue" the legal ownership of land

Dreyfus Affair

1894 - 1906

The false accusation of Alfred Dreyfus of treason in the 1890s. Split France between anti-Semites, the government,and Catholics vs.civil libertarians and radical republicans.

Schlieffen Plan


An attack plan for the future Great War by the Germans, which was proposed by a man named Schlieffen, that included a lightning quick attack against France by going through Belgium (with Belgium's permission). Belgium resisted and other countries came to their aid including Britain in 1914. It ended up being a long fight because of trench warfare.

Sister Carrie


A realist novel written in the US by Theodore Dreiser

Revolution of 1905


A revolution in Russia caused by discontent among all sorts of people in the country.

Bloody Sunday

January 22, 1905

A peaceful gathering at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia led by Father Gapon-- turned horribly violent when the government troops opened fire.

October Manifesto

October 1905

How the Russian government reacted to the October strikes. Granted civil rights and promised a parliament with real legislative power.

Fundamental Laws


The new constitution for Russia in 1906. Gave the tsar great powers. Allowed a Duma elected by universal male suffrage however the tsar still held absolute veto. Caused frustration among middle-class liberals.

First Balkan War

October 1912 - May 1913

Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory, which led to the second Balkan war.

Trench Warfare

1914 - 1918

Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate. Used in World War 1.

World War I

July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918

Panama Canal

August 1914

After President Theodore Roosevelt of the United States of America aided the Panama Revolutionaries in their fight for independence against Colombia, the United States gained approval to build a canal straight through the country to vastly shorten the time it took to commute between the Atlantic & Pacific.

Armenian Genocide

1915 - 1917

The Armenian Holocaust/Massacres/Medz Yeghern was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of the minority Armenian subjects within their historic homeland (the area that is now Turkey). Highly disputed to this day; continues to cause great tensions between Armenia and Turkey.

Arab Revolt

1916 - 1918

The revolt began with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a unified Arab state from Syria to Yemen.



There name actually meant "the majority". It was the Russian communist party and was led by Lenin. Although they were actually the vast minority in the populous and the Russian congress, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. Took over the government through the work of Leon Trotsky to implement the possibility for, and eventually make, a coup on the government, which was successful.