War between France and England ending in political reform in both nations. In France monarchy to a centralized state, and in England economic reform through mercantilism.
THEME : Conservatism and Nationalism
The opposite of liberalism because the idea supported the current status quo. Liberal's opposed conservatism naturally and acted as the main antagonist of this political system.
Allowed both for political and religious propaganda to be spread more quickly at a higher quantity than ever before. This would prove to be an essential tool for the PR.
THEME : Protestant reformation
Humanist that argued for a good ruler who rules powerfully but also shrewdly. Many rulers after him took his fox and tiger view on ruling in the role of a politque.
The opposite of Locke in political thinking that a government should be an absolute power that the people must obey. His ideas would be added to Enlightened thinkers who advocated political reform in the 1800s.
SR who applied rationalism from the SR to political structure. His ideas represented a democratic government which supports the people. HIs ideas were applied later in the FR and AR and influenced the thinkers in the Enlightenment.
Centralized France after the monarchy was losing power to the aristocrats and faced discontent with PR. HIs reign successfully strengthened France and influenced other nations to do the same, like Russia under Peter, and Prussia under Frederick.
The beginning of a Liberal England by replacing the Tudors with William of Orange.
Influenced by GB government based on rationality and logic from the SR, he envisioned a French government based on checks and balances. His works would effect the functions of liberal democracy's in the French revolutionary's republic and beyond.
THEME: Liberalism and Enlightenment
An advocate for religious toleration and for a more liberal France based on the principals set forth in the SR, he was a precursor for the revolutionary's in the FR.
THEME: Liberalism and Enlightenment
War between France and Britain in response to Louis XIV's attempt to take the Spanish throne under the Bourbons. Represented a battle between a newly liberal government and absolutist state eventually ending France absolutism under Louis XIV.
Enlightenment writer who was by social contract writers Locke and Hobble to produce a new social contract in which the general will determined the governments actions. He was heavily referenced during the FR where his ideas were attempted.
THEME: Liberalism and Enlightenment
The French emperor who centralized France while portraying liberal ideals under a nationalist government. Because of his support of liberals, his military goal of conquering Europe was supported in turn by the revolutionary's. His eventual defeat lead the major powers of Europe to reassert the Old regime through the conservative order.
Essentially the end to the Old regime, by applying the political ideals of the Enlightenment in a revolution. This lead to a backlash by Conservatives in the Concert of Europe and Congress of Vienna and sparked social unrest through liberal institutions from 1800s onward.
THEME: Liberalism, Nationalism, Enlightenment
The political system that was progressive because the ideals were against the current status quo. This new idea created a political spectrum with liberalism on one end and conservatism on the other.
The idea of a political state ruled and occupied by persons of the same ethnicity. Because of this it was the main factor in unifying or breaking down countries in Europe. As a result a direct opponent of conservatism
Congress involving the Quadruple alliance in response to Napoleons defeat. The congress attempted to apply a conservative order to prevent a reiteration of Napoleonic age in the Concert of Europe.
A politically conservative agreement between the European superpowers of GB, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russian to prevent another Napoleonic era by preventing one of the country's to become more powerful than the others. This successful prevented the liberal revolutions leading up to 1848.
Inventor of the concept of communism, and father of political socialism. His view lead others after him to develop other interpretations or to attempt to establish communism, e.g Russian civil war in 1905
Unsuccessful revolutions by mostly middle class liberals in an attempt to extend political power to them in response to the conservative order started in 1815. This resulted in the continuation of the conservatives dominance in Europe until the Crimean war.
THEME: Liberalism and Nationalism
The end of the Concert of Europe, by providing tensions between major Europeans instead of concerns regarding liberal uprisings. This greatly helped liberal success in the unification of Germany and Italy
Unification of the Italian states by nationalists resulting in a partly liberal state. This was the start of another significant political power in Europe and disrupted the balance of power even more.
THEME: Nationalism and Liberalism
The unification was in response to the success of the Italian unification, and resulted in a powerful conservative state that prompted reform in Austria and France.
THEME: Conservatism but perceived Liberalism and Nationalism.
Slaves eased productivity of the planation's that benefited the European economy, leading to larger economic gains for European nations. The trade generated controversy over issues about morality and created racial attitudes that would continue during the 1900s
This discovery of vast economic opportunity would result in European country's gaining more wealth and new consumers and markets along with new imports to Europe.
THEME: start of Mercantilism
This conquest firmly established Spanish domination over the New world for over two centuries, and put them for a time economically ahead of there neighbors.
THEME: Nationalism and Mercantilism
An economic system used by political leader during the old regime. This was criticized by the enlightenment authors who provided a new rational system called capitalism.
Improvements in agricultural like the invention of the plow resulted in more food grown in a faster time to help feed a growing Europe. Reductions in the labor needed for farming led people to pursue other jobs like the industry helping capitalism and leading to the first IR.
THEME: Scientific advancements in the SR and Enlightenment led to the Agriculture Revolution
Established boundary's in the New world regarding trade and territorial disputes lead to warfare between the major European power in the late 1700s.
Inventor of capitalism which would intertwine with the IR's and the modern European economy, but also created controversy and discontent from mostly the working class in works by Marx and others.
THEME: Capitalism and Enlightenment
Trading disputes between GB and Spain lead to a war that would lead to a larger trade war concerning all European nations in the Seven Years War.
War sparked from the War of Jenkins ear that resulted in a vast trade empire for GB at the expense of Spanish and Frances New world territories. This greatly strengthened GB and put it in front economically to its neighbors.
Improvements in agriculture left more time for many Europeans, and new factory's that mass produced goods filled in the unemployed as a result. The IR created tensions between the middle class capitalists and the working class leading to new political and economic ideas like Marxism.
As a result of the 7 years war large funds were needed to repay war costs and the nations turned to taxation of civilians to do so. This led to the FR and AR and eventually major reforms in all European states.
Because of growing populations Malthus thought that the human race would starve and die out. He held negative options of the working class as he regarding them a major factor in the population boom, opponent political ideals that benefited the working class like socialism.
THEME: Capitalism and enlightenment
He provided factual support of the capitalists by producing the iron law of wages which was heavily against benefits like unions for the working class.
THEME: Capitalism, Enlightenment, Liberalism
A new economic system implemented in both IR based on enlightened principles that created back lash by both the working class and the aristocrats.
These nations wanted economic and political indepence so that they could achieve what the Eupeaos had through their new industry. This was a loss to the conservative order of 1815 but did not hurt European nations economically very much.
THEME: Nationalsim and Liberalism
Resulted from the extended franchise and a large working class created by the IR's. Ideas regarding the industry were debated and Marxism and socialism dominated and led to revolutions in places like the Russian revolution in 1905
This period of intense economic growth added to the achievements of the first IR and established European dominance over the rest of the world. New and improved communications and military technology led to larger more advanced wars like WW1. With the expanded franchise mass political parties and unions were formed at the same time in response to growing industrliztion
THEME: Capitalism and enlightenment
The new extended franchise helped many lower classes join larger representive political parties that pushed for change. Politicians could now no longer ignore the lower classes.
Another attempt to organize the working class. Large political group of working classes that influenced political actions in Europe regarding working class supported systems like socialism in France in 1890s.
In response to industrliztion in Russia workers rebelled against the Tsar. Although a failure this was a precursor to the Russian revolution of 1817.
A period of revision of ancient intellectual cultures that condoned the bleak corporate feeling of the Old Regime. This time period brought forth a new feeling of individualism and humanism that glorified the human race. Ideas from this time period brought forth reform in all parts of Europe.
Began the SR by publishing his book of his observations of the solar systems that contradicted the old models. This influenced other intellectuals of this period to further research the unknown in science and reform the known.
THEME: Scientific revolution
Renaissance artist that applied the humanist and individualism from the era into artwork
Leader of the PR who advocated reform of the Christian religion that was based on ideals from the Renaissance. He started the long reformation of the Christian religion resulting in centuries of conflict and various denominations.
THEME: PR and the Renaissance
Ideas from the Renaissance influenced the long reformation of Christianity that advocated new theologies that went against the Catholic doctrine. Prompted a Catholic counter reformation and the PR led to a long violent period like in the 30 years war.
Resulted from reforms in religion from the PR and humanism in the Renaissance applying to the intellectual field with the advancements of many parts of science. This directly influenced the Enlightenment and the IR because of improvements in science
Attempts made by the Catholic church to gain back followers that had converted to Protestantism. This finally failed after Protestantism was made a legal region in Europe in the Peace of Westphalia
The German protestants Lutherans were given religious freedom in the HRE. Prompted other denominations of Protestantism to do the same, like in the 30 years war.
THEME: Liberalsim and PR
Brought forth the scientific method based on empirsism and observation rather than traditional ideas. Resulted in other scientists using his methods to discover new unknowns in science and in the enlightenment.
Resulted from tensions from the PR and the Catholic counter reformation. Influenced later push's by protestants to achieve the religious freedom found in France after the war.
Brought forth scientific solutions based on rationalism and logic that other scientists and philosophers would use in the SR and the enlightenment.
Peace after French war of religion that allowed relative religious tolerance and freedom to the Huguenot protestant. This represented one of the first tolerant government moves regarding religion that would influence protestants in other nations like in the HRE.
THEME: Liberalsim and PR
The final conflict between the conservative Catholics and the protestants who seeked religious toleration and freedom. A win for the protestants who gained relative freedom in Europe and would result in reforms in other fields based on the successes of the protestants.
Brought forth a perfect solution to physics based on mathematics changing the fluid, mysterious view of nature encouraged by the Church. His findings resulted in other scientists to perceive the world as mechanical in nature wholly solvable, like in philosophy and the enlightenment.
Firmly established Protestantism by dashing any hopes of a request of Europe by Catholics. Ended the PR and influenced reformers of other fields that maybe the could achieve the same success, like the SR
THEME: PR and Liberalism
Philosopher that applied the SR and the enlightenment to human development by stating that science is the most advanced stage of human understanding.
The SR influenced the intellectuals of this period to apply rationalism and empirsism to different fields like government. Ideas generated in this time period influenced political and economic reform in events like the FR
Philosopher who advocated religious tolerance and utilitltarsim, both ideals liberal ideals set forth during the enlightenment.
Provided a rational view on history and why conflict happens that influenced many other writers, like Marx.
Added on the individualism from the Renaissance and a backlash against the enlightenment, the movement put forward emotion, tradition, and most importantly nationalism. Nationalism was the main factor for the unification of Italy and Germany later on in the century.
THEME: Renaissance, Conservatisme, Nationalism
Nationalist that combined it with romanticism and individualism from the Renaissance.
THEME: Renaissance and Nationalism
Clarified evolution and natural selection by conducting research based on empirsism and rationalism, both ideas from the SR. He created controversy because his work contradicted the Church.
THEME: Liberalsim, represented ideals and methods set forward by the SR and enlightenment