Political and Diplomatic

100 Years War

1337 - 1453

Theme One

The 100 Years War was fought by the Kingdom of England against the Kingdom of France caused by English claim to the French throne after Charles IV died, and this was the real first example of a state that failed to have a centralized and rather weak government because the French couldn't secure their throne against a nation that is overseas

Charles V

1500 - 1558

Theme One

Charles V was many things, Charles I of Spain, Duke of Burgundy, Holy Roman Emperor, and many more; although he had to rule a vast amount of territory, his success to centralize the territories he had made him into Habsburgs most successful ruler

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Approx. 1572

Theme Three

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre was when the Catholics citizens of France massacred the Protestant population and the French government did nothing to intervene, because the French government wanted to bring Catholicism as the main religion in France once more

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Theme Two

Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who wrote the Leviathan; he stated that every man has natural rights and that power in the government should represent the people; he was one of the founders of liberalism along with others such as Rousseau, John Locke, and more

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Theme Two

The English Civil War was an armed conflict against the Parliament's army and the royalists of the king. It ended with the parliaments winning and taking control the government and this marked the first real liberal government that defeated a conservative government of a king and this trend would not be seen again until the 1800s

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Theme One

Louis XIV, or Louis the Great or the Sun King, was the French monarch and he was very significant in French history because he centralized France and made France a strong natio

Peter the Great

1672 - 1725

Theme One

Peter the Great was a Russian Emperor and he was responsible for improving the economy, military and social order, and centralized Russia, and shaped Russia to what it is today, he saw that Russia needs to be westernized to become a major power and his actions shaped Russia into a centralized European power

Glorious Revolution


Theme Three

The Glorious Revolution was an event in which James II of England was overthrown peacefully by his own citizens as they appointed William III of Orange-Nassau the new king, and the reason for this was because James II tried to convert England into an absolute Catholic state, even though England was Protestant, and this showed that the Catholic Church cannot convert Protestant states into Catholicism very easily, and just how weak their influence has become

Rise of Prussia

Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1780

Theme One

Because Prussia was such a centralized state, it was able to rise to a great and powerful nation that was advanced not only socially but technologically, and became a role model for nations looking to be a centralized and powerful nation

Spanish War of Succession

1701 - 1714

Theme One

The Spanish War of Succession of a war fought to make sure that France and Spain don't form an alliance and become too powerful, and they were successful because Philip V renounced his claim in France, and this showed that a nation can become a threat to Europe if they become too centralized

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Theme One

The War of Austrian Succession was a war fought to end the regime of the Habsburgs, and it showed that the once very influential Habsburg was now a decentralized power and although securing their family position at the end of the war, their family power went downhill from here

Frederick the Great

1740 - 1786

Theme One

Frederick the Great, Like Louis XIV, was a famous leader of a nation because of his many success's, such as improving the economy, social order, the military and centralized Prussia to make it a more secure nation

Louis XVI

1754 - 1793

Theme Two

Louis XVI was the king of France during the beginning of the French Revolution and his failure to respond accordingly to the plea of the citizens of France costed his life and the French monarchy, and his failure paved way for future liberal uprisings against other conservative governments around Europe


1769 - 1815

Theme Two

Napoleon was the famous French emperor of the French Empire after the French Revolution and led France to conquer most of Europe, and his reign dawned the era of many revolutions to come from liberal nationalists against the conservative, traditional governments all around Europe

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Theme One

The French Revolution was when the citizens of France overthrew the aristocrats and the French government due to the lack of food, money and overall bad conditions that the French monarch put them in. It ended with the monarch being overthrown and France being controlled under a republic by Napoleon, then an empire. This was the start of conservative governments being put under rebellion by liberal nationalists


1805 - 1872

Theme Two

Mazzini was responsible for unifying the different Italian states into one country, Italy, and he did just that in 1861 by a series of wars and diplomatic moves, and made Italy into liberal nation


1815 - 1898

Theme Two

Bismarck was a German nationalist, conservative and the Iron Chancellor. He was responsible for unifying the German states into Germany in 1871 by a series of carefully planned wars and diplomatic moves. He wanted to unify Germany because the idea of unifying a nation was glorified at that time due to all the revolutions of that age and the unification of Italy in 1861

Battle of Waterloo


Theme Two

This battle marked Napoleon's end and showed the commitment of the nations involved in the Congress of Vienna to stop another Napoleon from taking power, and although this battle marked Napoleon's end, his actions inspired other liberal revolutionists to take arms and attempt to overthrow the conservative governments of their nation

Congress of Vienna


Theme Two

The Congress of Vienna was a congress made up of major European powers and they all vowed to help each other in times of liberal revolutions so another French Revolution and Napoleon would not happen, and it was the first time that all major European powers combined forces and helped each other. They also wanted things to go back to times before the French Revolution

Revolutions of 1848


Theme Two

Revolutions of 1848 were multiple revolutions by liberal revolutionaries against conservative governments in Europe, and they were unsuccessful but sparked inspirations for future revolutionists, and it got the conservatives worried about the threat of the liberals

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Theme Two

The Crimean War was fought in the Crimean Peninsula by many nations such as Great Britain, Sardinia, Ottoman Empire, and more and resulted in the decisive defeat of Russia and showed that Russia was very disorganized and weak and also helped greatly in the unification of Italy due to Sardinia contributing in the war so it can ask favors from nations involved in the war in the future

Curtain of Europe's End


Theme Two

With the start of the Crimean War, the end of the Curtain of Europe was marked because Russia tried to take the Crimean Peninsula, even though the European nations vowed to work together to stop liberal revolutions, and because of this, future revolutions and unifications were much easier to accomplish

Italy Unified


Theme Two

The many Italian states were finally unified thanks to Mazzini, rise of nationalism in Europe, and new liberal ideologies, and this showed that a bunch of different states could in fact be unified and paved way for the eventual unification of Germany in 1871


1870 - 1924

Theme Two

Lenin was responsible for bringing the Russian Revolution and ending the reign of the Tsar's and introduced the far left Communist party in Russia, and ultimately created the USSR, which reigned over Russia for almost a century

Germany Unified


Theme One

The German states were finally unified in 1871 by Bismarck and this continued the trend of the desire to unify many states into one unified nation, with the rise of nationalism. Germany was now a very centralized and powerful nation in Europe

Economic and Social

Slave Trade

Approx. 1400 - Approx. 1800

Theme Four

The Slave Trade was an action in which slaves from Africa were sent to the Americas to improve the economy of the mother nation and although this was effective, it was inhumane so they made all slave trade illegal in the 1800's


Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1800

Theme Four

Mercantilism was a form of economy that many Europeans used in the 1500-1800, and mercantilism stated that governmental regulations on other nations goods and having your citizens buy the products made in your own nation will be the most profitable system of economy, but this was proven ineffective and capitalism replaced mercantilism

Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1600

Theme Four

The Columbian Exchange was a form of economy and trade that dominated Europe for some time; and it consisted of an European nations and their colonies around the world, mostly in the Americas, giving resources back to their mother nation and the mother nation making goods from the resources and selling it back to the colonies; and this was effective for some time but colonies were too much work and time so they resorted to Mercantilism



Theme Three

Humanism was a new idea that every human has a purpose in life and could do great things, and was a factor in the decline in the Catholic Church because now every person thought that there was more to life than just worshiping God and wanted to do their own things

95 Theses


Theme Three

The 95 Theses was a work by Martin Luther, founder of Lutheranism, and he put this up in Wittenberg, to challenge people to debate his 95 questions, and this marked the start of the rise of Protestantism and the resistance from the Catholic Church

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Theme Three

The Protestant Reformation was when Protestant nations seceded from Catholic rule, often times through wars, and this was so that Protestant religions could be recognized by the Church as a real religion and so they can practice their religion freely, and this was a huge blow to the power of the Catholic Church

Dutch Golden Age

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1700

Theme Four

The Dutch Golden Age was a period in the Netherlands where they prospered economically, culturally and socially, and the reason was because of their success in trading with other nations and their own colonies around the world, and many nations copied the way that the Dutch ran things in order to have their own golden age

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Theme Three

The Thirty Years War was one of the bloodiest conflict in Europe and it was caused by the Holy Roman Empire trying to force its states to convert to Catholicism when it was Protestant, and the anti-Habsburgs ended up winning and it showed that the Catholic Church could not easily convert Protestant people back to Catholicism

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Theme Two

John Locke was an English philosopher and physician, and was dubbed as the Father of Liberalism, and his works were used to create the Social Contract and he inspired the new idea of liberalism



Theme Three

Individualism was the belief that everybody is capable of doing great things and to think individually; and this challenged the Catholic Church because then people started to think of themselves and not God

John Law

1671 - 1729

Theme Four

John Law was a Scottish economist who believed that trade is the real form of wealth, not money; and this ideology paved way for what will eventually become Capitalism, which ended up being very successful



Theme Two

Versailles was built to be a hunting lodge by Louis XIII but when Louis XIV came, he expanded it to whats seen nowdays for his own house and so that aristocrats can enjoy it with him, and see what Louis XIV has accomplished to the rest of Europe. Although this was meant for aristocrats, the lowest class citizens of France built it, and it showed the dominance of the aristocrats and the king over the rest of France socially

Agricultural Revolution

Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1720

Theme Four

The Agricultural Revolution took place in many nations around Europe but started in Great Britain, and it created many new machines to improve production rates, thus the economy, and it many Eastern European nations looked to westernize and adopt these new ways of productions, and paved the way for the Industrial Revolution


Approx. 1700 - Approx. Present

Theme Four

Capitalism was a form of economy that stated that trade with other nations was the best form of economy and was adopted by many nations and those who did adopt it benefited tremendously; such as Great Britain, and it is still being used today

Rise of Great Britain

1700 - 1922

Theme Four

Great Britain became a global superpower because of its centralized government, superior economy, a mighty military and advanced technology, and this is all because Great Britain followed the viewpoints of economists and philosophers such as Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and more, and the Industrial Revolution allowed them to one up all other nations economically, and many nations looked to copy what Great Britain did in hopes to being like them

Rise of Middle Class

Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1800

Theme Four

The middle class emerged in the late middle ages and kept on rising up to challenge the aristocrats and in the late 1700s, the French middle class rose up against the aristocrats and the king and overthrew them, replacing the old aristocrats with the new middle class as the new aristocrats, but as the Industrial Revolution came, the middle class and the aristocrats' gap widened because the middle class had to work in factories for the aristocrats

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Theme Four

Adam Smith was a Scottish philosopher and a pioneer in modern economics, as he wrote the Wealth of Nations and founded Capitalism, which many successful countries such as Great Britain adopted, and tremendously benefited

Industrial Revolution

Approx. 1760 - Approx. 1840

Theme Four

The Industrial Revolution was a period in which nations converted from agricultural production to factory productions, and transitioned from farms to privately owned factories that made the gap between the aristocrats and the middle class even larger, and although cities were in terrible conditions, the economies of the industrialized nations prospered

Thomas Malthus

1766 - 1834

Theme Four

Thomas Malthus was an English cleric and scholar that helped improve the economy and social order of European nations that adopted his teachings; which stated that the population will go up if there is a surplus of food, but the population will go down if there is not enough food, and this was used to improve the social order and economy of European nations and this was seen to be true in the midst of the French Revolution when the people of France rebelled because there was not enough food

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

Theme Four

Karl Marx was Prussian philosopher, economist, sociologist, and many more things, He and Frederick Engels famously wrote the Communist Manifesto, and inspired many people in the future to execute revolutions and set up a new, communist nation, such as Lenin

Alexander II

1818 - 1881

Theme Four

Alexander II was the Tsar of Russia and he was known for passing many reforms like Peter the Great; and he is most well known for abolishing serfdom in Russia, hoping it will improve the economy and make Russia a major power, but it did not, and made things even more complicated. He was assassinated in 1881 by a revolutionist group called "People's Will"


1848 - 1900

Theme Two

Nationalism was an ideology that you should be proud of what nation you're from and you should try to make your nation better; and this idea encouraged many liberal revolutions and unification all over Europe in the 1800s


Approx. 1850 - Present

Theme Four

Communism was a form of government and economy that stated that wealth should be distributed around all the citizens of a nation so that there is no class and everyone is equal, and that all business should be government controlled, and this idea is still being used today, and this was tested with the USSR but ultimately failed

Public Health Act of 1875


Theme Four

The Public Health Act of 1875 was passed in Great Britain by the Parliament in order to combat against the filthy living conditions in Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution and this shows the negative effects that the Industrial Revolution had on a nation even though it improved its economy dramatically

Feminism Movement

1880 - 1920

Theme Two

The Feminism Movement was born so females of European nations could have prestige and get more out of their life then what they were getting; such as voting rights, new jobs, society viewing women more than house cleaners, etc. and with the rise of liberalism and the willingness to change, many governments allowed women to vote in the 1900s

Cultural and Intellectual


Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1600

Theme Three

The Renaissance was a period of relative peace with intellectual and art flourishing and brought back many ideas from the ancient Romans and Greek eras, and it ushered in the thinking of the fact that the Catholic Church wasn't always right and the power of the Catholic Church began waning down from this point onward

Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Approx. 1400

Theme Three

Deductive and Inductive Reasoning was a new intellectual way of thinking that was used by many famous philosophers and scientists in order to discover new ideas such as how the Solar System worked, and the scientists and philosophers were usually using it to go against the Catholic Church's ideas


1473 - 1543

Theme Three

Copernicus was a mathematician and astronomer from the Renaissance era, and he came up with the heliocentric theory, which stated that the Sun was in the center of the solar system and every other planet orbited around it, which kickstarted the downfall of the Catholic Church

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Theme Three

Martin Luther was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, and a former monk; but he is most well known for founding Lutheranism, the main religion in Protestantism, which fought intellectually, as well as physically, against those who were with the Catholic Church. He was the one who started the Protestant Reformation

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

Theme Three

The Scientific Revolution was a period of time when science flourished instead of the belief of God and people during this time thought that anything could be solved by science and it showed just how much the Catholic Church declined as an influential power in Europe


Approx. 1513

Theme Three

Lutheranism was the belief that faith, grace and scripture alone can get you into the gates of heaven and was founded by Martin Luther around the early 1500, and it was the main Protestant religion and threatened the Church, sparking the Protestant Reformation

The Jesuits


Theme Three

The Jesuits were created in Spain to bring back the former power of the Catholic Church during the Counter Reformation, but they weren't very successful

Counter Reformation

Approx. 1543 - Approx. 1648

Theme Three

The Counter Reformation was an attempt by the Catholic Church to bring back its influence over Europe by creating the Jesuits, revoking the Edict of Nantes, etc. and it did bring back some influence that it lost but it could not bring back everything it lost by the Protestant Reformation

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Theme Three

Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer that accurately calculated the movements of planets and made bases for many other great future astronomers such as Galileo, and the declining power of the Catholic Church made his research and all other scientists researches in the future possible


1564 - 1642

Theme Three

Galileo was an Italian astronomer, philosopher, physicist, etc. that questioned if the solar system really worked the way that the Church claimed it to be, and he openly supported the idea of ethnocentrism, in which he was trialed and exiled in Siena for questioning the Church. His works and outcome still had huge blow on the receding power of the Catholic Church



Theme Three

Calvinism was founded by John Calvin and it was the second most popular religion in Protestantism after Lutheranism, and Calvinists fought against the Catholic Church in the Thirty Years War, and was a big factor in the Protestant Reformation

Edict of Nantes


Theme Three

The Edict of Nantes was a edict passed in France that allowed Calvinists in France to freely practice, and it was a big step for the Calvinists because they were originally mad about the fact that Lutheranism was allowed to be practiced in France but not the Calvinists, and this marked a victory for not just the Calvinists, but Protestantism against the Catholic Church

Baroque Art

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1750

Theme Three

Baroque Art was a type of art that emerged from the Protestant Church as a part of the Counter Reformation; as the Catholic Church was trying to bring back its influence, as it included dramatic sculptures and art of religious figures in the middle of action

Danish Art

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1700

Theme Four

Danish Art was a product of the Dutch Golden Age and it showed the life of an average middle/upper class Dutch during the Dutch Golden Age and it showed the success that the new economy system that the Dutch adopted brought them

Divine Right of Kings


Theme One

The Divine Right of Kings was created by James I of England and it stated that God gave a king his position and everybody within his rule must follow all the order that the king says because he is taking orders from God, and that the king gets absolute rule without question, and this proved ineffective and dangerous overtime

Sir Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

Theme Three

Sir Isaac Newton was a scientist that figured out how gravity works and laid basis for modern science today; and he was influenced by previous scientists and philosophers such as Copernicus, Galileo, Hegel, etc.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


Theme Three

This was when Louis XIV of France withdrew the Edict of Nantes, which allowed Calvinists to freely practice their religion in France, and this was to make Catholicism the main religion in France again, and this was a part of the Counter Reformation brought by the Church



Theme Three

This was the belief that science can explain how the universe was created and Atheism shows the effect of the decline of the Catholic Church and the effects that the philosophers and scientists before Atheism had on the world


Approx. 1700 - Approx. 1800

Theme Three

The Enlightenment was a period of philosophical ideas that dominated Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, and it was a product of previous scientists that inspired science and reasoning over the beliefs of the Catholic Church


Approx. 1750 - Approx. 1850

Theme Three

Neoclasslism was art that brought back Roman and Greek arts, and it sought to gain influence back in the Catholic Church and was a product of the Counter Reformation

Social Contract (Rousseau)


Theme Two

The Social Contact was a idea created of Rousseau to counter the Divine Right of Kings and it stated that without government, the world would be in chaos and people appoint and trust people in power to govern them with fair hand and if he or she doesn't, then they have the right to overthrow the current ruler, and it inspired many new governments to go liberal and have several appointed representatives instead of one ruler


1770 - 1831

Theme Three

Hegel was a German philosopher during the late period of the Enlightenment and he heavily supported absolute idealism by reducing reality to a synthetic unity, and he inspired nationalism and set up the early basis for it


Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1850

Theme Two

Romanticism was an intellectual, artistic and literacy movement that countered the cold, non emotional ideas of the Scientific Revolution and it brought back many medieval architecture, and many conservative governments preferred this because it could be used as a pre French Revolution propaganda and shift peoples minds towards the time periods before the French Revolution

Gothic Architecture

Approx. 1800 - Approx. 1830

Theme Two

This was a part of Romanticism and it reintroduced many medieval architecture and brought back many ideas of fantasy and witchcraft, and many conservative governments adopted it because they preferred the pre French Revolution age

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858 - 1928

Theme Two

Emmeline Pankhurst was a feminist activist in the 19th and 20th century and had a big impact on the feminist movement in Great Britain, and ultimately made voting legal for women and made them more prestigious, and while conservative governments said that women should be in the house, liberal governments were more open about it and ultimately changed their views of women and eventually, the conservative governments did as well