AP Euro Timeline - Maddie Rhinehart

Winter Project

Events

Gothic

1200 - 1420

Theme: Art and Literature
Gothic art has a focus on God and is dark and detailed. This movement began in France.

Renaissance

1300 - 1600

Theme: Art and literature
Renaissance art focuses on individualism and secularism. It began in Italy.

Christine de Pisan

1364 - 1430

Theme: Women in society
Christine de Pisan is considered Europe's first professional female author. She wrote 41 books.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Erasmus was a humanist writer who supported religious toleration.

Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Machiavelli was an Italian humanist who wrote the Prince and Discourses on Livy.

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Copernicus was a natural philosopher. He was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Luther was a German monk and the most famous critic of the Church. He wrote the 95 Theses in 1517.

Protestant Revolution

1500 - 1600

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
The Protestant Reformation was led by Martin Luther and was a movement against the Church.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Calvin created Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on pre-destination.

95 Theses

1517

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Luther nailed the 95 Theses to a church door to explain everything that was wrong with the Church. This started the Protestant Reformation.

Diet of Worms

1521

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
The Diet of Worms was the assembly of the estates of the empire called by Charles V.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
The Peace of Augsburg was a document where Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire.

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Bacon was a scientist who used inductive reasoning.

Galileo

1564 - 1642

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Galileo was an astronomer and mathematician who contributed to the creation of the telescope.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Themes: Intellectuals and new ideas
Hobbes was an English political theorist for absolute monarchy. He wrote Leviathan in 1651.

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Descartes was a french mathematician and philosopher who believed in deductive reasoning. He published the Discourse on Method.

Salons

1600 - 1700

Theme: Women in society
Salons were informational gatherings, usually hosted by middle-class or aristocratic women.

Baroque

1600 - 1750

Theme: Art and literature
Baroque is art mysterious and dramatic and focused on Catholicism. It originated in Rome.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Themes: Intellectuals and new ideas
Locke was an English philosopher and physician. He wrote the Two Treatises of Government. He defended that men are free by nature and equal against claims that God made all people subject to a monarch.

Issac Newton

1642 - 1727

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Newton was a scientist and physicist who proved gravity.

Leviathan

1651

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Leviathan was written by Thomas Hobbes. It said that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
The Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV. It resulted in the closing of protestant churches and protestant ministers being exiled.

The Glorious Revolution

1688

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
The Glorious Revolution was the "bloodless" revolution. It was when James II gave the thorn to his daughter and Prince William of Orange.

Two Treatises on Government

1689

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas.
Two Treatises of Government was written by John Locke as a justification of the Glorious Revolution and the end of absolutism in England.

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Voltaire was an enlightenment thinker who advocated freedom of religion and expression.

Bank of England

1694

Theme: New inventions and innovations
The Bank of England issued uniform bank notes, extended short-term loans, and provided means for transferring capital for investment purposes.

Madame de Geoffrin

1699 - 1777

Theme: Women in society
Geoffrin was one of the leading figures of the Enlightenment. She ran one of the best known salons in France.

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

Theme: New inventions and innovations
During the Agricultural Revolution the open field system and drainage were invented and it introduced more food variety and greater quantities.

Emilie du Chatelet

1708 - 1749

Theme: Women in society
Chatelet was a French author, physicist, and mathematician. She is most accomplished for translating Newton's Principia into french.

Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Rousseau was a french philosopher who believed that people are born good, but are corrupted by society.

Rococo

1715 - 1800

Theme: Art and literature
Rococo art shows the wealth of the nobles. It is very light and shows self-indulgence. It was influential in France and Austria.

Madame de Pompadour

1721 - 1764

Theme: Women in society
Pompadour was the mistress of King Louis XV, She was a great patron of the arts and a big supporter of the Enlightenment.

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Smith was a Scottish philosophy professor who founded modern economics and created the idea of a free economy. He wrote the Wealth of Nations.

Edmund Burke

1729 - 1797

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Burke was the author of Reflections on the Revolution in France. He attacked the principle of the rights of man and natural law as fundamentally dangerous to the social order.

Hannah More

1729 - 1796

Theme: Women in society
More was an English writer and philanthropist. She wrote on morals and religious subjects.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Theme: Movements for women
Theresa was the Archduchess of Austria and the Queen of Hungary.

Olympe de Gouges

1748 - 1793

Theme: Women in society
Gouges is the author of the Declaration of the Rights of Women, written in 1791.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Theme: New inventions and innovations
The industrial Revolution led to railroads and efficient energy sources.

Encyclopedia

1751

Theme: Art and literature
The Encyclopedia was published by Diderot to gather knowledge about science, religion, industry, and society.

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759 - 1797

Theme: Women in society
Wollstonecraft wrote a Vindications of the Rights of Women in 1792.

The Social Contract

1762

Theme: Art and literature
The Social Contract was written by Rousseau, it stated that society is more important than the individual members.

Madame de Stael

1766 - 1817

Theme: Women in society
Stael ran salons and became an opponent of Napoleon. She had a major influence on the Romantic movement.

Steam Engine

1769

Theme: New inventions and innovations
The steam engine was first built by Thomas Newcomen and Thomas Savery and was improved later by James Watt.

Pugachev Revolt

1773 - 1774

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
The Pugachev Revolt was a peasants revolt in Russia.

Neoclassical

1780 - 1820

Theme: Art and literature
Neoclassical art is formal and shows the imperial style of Greek and Roman art and most of the time focused on Napoleon. It was mainly influenced in France.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
The French Revolution began because of French citizens wanting to rid the absolute monarch. The end brought a rise to Napoleon.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

1789 - 1790

Theme: Art and literature
Written by the National Assembly as a constitution that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law.

March on Versailles

October 5, 1789

Theme: Women in society
Seven thousand women marched to Versailles to demand bread.

A Vindication of the Rights of Women

1792

Theme: Art and Literature
Written by Mary Wollstonecraft advocating for the rights of women.

Execution of Louis XVI

1793

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Louis XVI was executed along with his wife, Marie Antoinette, because of their monarchical views on ruling France.

Mary Shelley

1797 - 1851

Theme: Women in society
Shelley was the author of Frankenstein. She was influenced by romanticism and its supernatural content. This book is considered to be the first science fiction novel.

Flora Tristan

1803 - 1844

Theme: Women in society
Tristan was a french reformer and is considered a founder of modern feminism. She wrote several books on women's rights and social reform.

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species. He created the theory of evolution.

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
It was a meeting of the European powers to arrange a peace agreement after the defeat of Napoleon.

Iron Law of Wages

1817

Theme: Art and literature
Written by Ricardo concluding that if the wages increased, so would childbirth, and if childbirth decreased, the workforce would increase.

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
Marx was a German philosopher, economist and revolutionary. He wrote the Communist Manifesto.

The Spanish Revolution

1820 - 1823

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Occurred in Spain's Latin American colonies and was suppressed three years later.

Romantic

1820 - 1900

Theme: Art and literature
Romantic art focuses on the emotion and passions of the people in them. It is full of dark characteristics. It was influential in France, Spain, and England.

Florence Nightingale

1820 - 1910

Theme: Women in society
Nightingale was a reformer and is considered one of the founders of modern nursing.

Greek Revolution

1821 - 1832

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Greece had help from Britain, France, and Russia. They gained independence.

Polish Revolution

1830 - 1831

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Nicholas I defeated the nationalistic uprising.

July Revolution

1830

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Rebellion against Charles X's actions in issuing the July Ordinances.

Belgian Revolution

1830

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
The Dutch army was defeated and a constitution was written. Belgium became independent in 1839

Railroads

1830 - 1860

Theme: inventions and innovations
Many countries developed these in the Industrial Revolution, Great Britain in particular.

Vesuvians

1840

Theme: Women in society
A group of radical women who wanted domestic and military equality.

Friedrich Nietzche

1844 - 1900

Theme: Intellectuals and new ideas
A German philosopher who believed that the strength that produces heroes springs from something beyond reason.

Millicent Fawcett

1847 - 1929

Theme: Women in society
Fawcett led the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies and favored peaceful negotiationsto achieve women's rights.

Austrian Revolution

1848

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Nationalism swept the nation, but was defeated.

Rebellion in Italy

1848

Theme: Independence. revolts, and movements against rulers and results
Liberal and nationalistic rebellions in several of the Italian states.

German Revolution

1848

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Liberals and Romantics failed to unify Germany during this revolution.

Hungarian Revolution

1848

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Louis Kossuth demanded independence, but they were defeated.

Bohemian Revolution

1848

Theme: Independence, revolts, and movements against rulers and the results
Austria crushed Bohemia.

June Days

1848

Theme: Independence. revolts, and movements against rulers and results
A revolt as a result of the national workshops were abolished.

Voix des Femmes

1848

Theme: Women in society
This was the feminist newspaper led by conservative women.

Italian Unification

1848 - 1870

Theme: Independence. revolts, and movements against rulers and results
Giuseppe Mazzini and GIuseppe Garibaldi were the two prominent figures who helped the unification.

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858 - 1928

Theme: Women in society
Pankhurst was the radical leader of the Women's Social and Political Union.

Second Industrial Revolution

1867 - 1914

Theme: New inventions and innovations
This was focused mainly in Germany; the movement from domestic systems of production to factory systems, mass production.

Marie Curie

1867 - 1934

Theme: Women in society
Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel prize and to become a professor at the University of Paris. She founded several scientific institutes.

German Unifcation

1871

Theme: Independence. revolts, and movements against rulers and results
Otto von Bismark helped the German states become an integrated nation state.

Married Women's Property Act

1882

Theme: Women in society
This was created in Great Britain, giving married women the right to retain ownership of property.

International Woman Suffrage Alliance

1904

Theme: Women in society
The promotion of women's human rights of equality and the empowerment of women.