AP Euro Timeline - Samantha Deatsch

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Events

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

Long war between England and France - England trying to take over French territory
Theme: Centralization of Power/Territorial Gains

Reniassance

January 1, 1350 - January 1, 1550

Close of the Middle Ages of thought and the beginning of modern thought - leads to basically every revolution, period, and era that follows. Renaissance thinkers are those that get the wheels turning for people down the (time)line.
Themes: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Peasants' Revolt

1358

Bloody rebellions where the peasants revolted against the nobility and the large taxes they were putting on the peasants to repair their war-damaged properties
Theme: The Rights of (Social) Classes

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Split Christianity into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

Invention of the Printing Press

1440

allowed for more pages to be printed and for news to travel farther and faster
Theme: Progression of Technology

Humanism

1450 - 1500

Start of the belief that humans are rational and have purpose and matter
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Marin Luther

1483 - 1546

German philosopher that began the Protestant Reformation with his attack against the church with his 95 Theses
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

Columbus Lands in America

1492

An economically thriving Spain sends Christopher Columbus on a voyage to find the Indies, he instead finds America
Theme: Centralization of Power/Territorial Gains

The Divine Right of Kings

1500 - 1600

Most popular in the 16th and 17th Century it was believed that a king should rule because he was"God's Choice"
Theme: Role of Religion in Everyday Life

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

Emergence of modern thought, knowledge, and science
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1600

Exchange between the new and old worlds so that European countries could export goods basically to themselves and make more money (mercantilism)
Theme:

Anabaptist Movement

1500

Modern day Christians that are against infant baptism and believe that it should be a choice made by an adult to have themselves baptized
Them: Religion in Everyday Life

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

French theologian and creator of Calvinism
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

Martin Luther's 95 Theses

1517

Martin Luther posted on the Church doors an attack on the Catholic Church’s selling of indulgences to gain a purchaser or a person they purchase the indulgence for salvation for their sins. Luther’s 95 Theses are a spark to the Protestant Reformation
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

16th century religious, political, intellectual and cultural movement that drastically changed Catholic Europe. They went against the bible and the church, challenging the Catholic Church’s authority while reformers demanded for new power and order.
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

Act of Supremacy

1534

Passed by parliament named King Henry VIII as the leader of the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Theme: Centralization of Power/Territorial Gains

Copernicus' On the Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs

1534

Copernicus’ book explaining how his theory of the heliocentric planetary system works, keeping the sun in the middle of the universe as the bible says but the Earth rotates around the sun
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Founding of the Jesuits

1540

Ignatius de Loyola founded the Society of Jesus with permission from Pope Paul III and along with his six students started their missions. They worked on converting Muslims and succeeded in the Counter - Reformation
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

The Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Finally meeting in 1545 the council of the church met in Trent of Northern Italy. With total control by the pope voting and rights were limited within the council, large reforms were mostly made to handle the discipline of the internal church. They strengthened the power of local bishops and more and stricter rules to the church.
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life / Centralization of Power

Baroque Art

1550 - 1750

Focuses on movement, drama, and expression
Theme: Transition of Art

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Began the first steps to coexistence between Lutheranism and Catholicism started by the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. It allowed the state princes to determine if their domain was Lutheran or Catholic. Not exactly the right to choose whatever religion you wanted but still step towards religious toleration.
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

After key territories in France are named permanently Catholic a series of civil wars between Catholics and Protestants ensues.
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Astronomer that bring up new ideas about the solar system during the Scientific Revolution
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Astronomer that bring up new ideas about the solar system during the Scientific Revolution
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Eighty Years War

1568 - 1648

War of Netherlands gaining independence from Spain. Later this leads to the separation of northern and southern Netherlands. Starting by failed invasions by William of Orange and foreign raides by the Geuzen (Calvinist group that revolted against Spanish rule of the Netherlands). As the Geuzen gained followers more provinces began to revolt.
Theme: Centralization of Power/Territorial Gains

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Catherine de Medici was set with dealing with the Huguenots (French Protestants) and after a failed attempt of killing their leader she convinces her son that the Huguenots are about to rebel. He then, in order to stop the “rebellion”, kills thousands of Huguenots throughout France.
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

Pacification of Ghent

1576

7,000 people dead as Spanish mercenaries “run amok” in Antwerp known as the Spanish Fury
Theme:

Edict of Nantes

1598

Signed by King Henry IV ended the French Wars of Religion by giving the Huguenots some rights and also recognized them as an actual religion.
Theme: Religion in Everyday Life

Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

Economic thought that a country should have more export than imports to be successful
Theme:

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Ferdinand II of Bohemia tries to control the religion of his subjects. This leads to several rebellions and ends up bringing in many of the major powers of Europe (Sweden, France, Spain, Austria) with most battles in Germany.

Takeover of Oliver Cromwell

1625

Oliver Cromwell served in parliament after being elected in. He led England during the Civil Wars and crushed the Royalists. After the death of Charles I of England he became “Lord Protector” of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.
Theme: Centralization of Power

Issac Newton

1642 - 1727

Mathematician and scientist during the Scientific Revolution - Came up with laws like gravity
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

Ends the Thirty Years War

Palace of Versailles

1682

Large palace of Louis XIV used to show the immense power and wealth of both the king and France and used as political propaganda
Theme: The Rights of (Social) Classes

Glorious Revolution

1688

King James the II wasn’t so popular in England with his people and parliament, they invited William III of Orange to invade England and take over the throne. He successfully drove away King James and took over, however he wasn’t as spectacular of a ruler as the people of England had hoped.
Theme: Centralization of Power

Bill of Rights

1689

Passed by William and Elizabeth of England to give a balance of power within England. The monarchy cannot pass any acts without the consent of parliament.
Theme: Centralization of Power

Bank of England is Founded

1694

First modern bank (England)
Theme: Progression of Technology

Steam Engine

1698

Created to create easier access and faster delivery for manufactured goods
Theme: Progression of Technology

Neoclassical Art

1700 - 1800

Based on Greek and Roman ideas and designs
Theme: Transition of Art

Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

Knowledge of the time like God, humanity, science, and reason were tested and proven right and wrong pushing Europe closer to its modern standing
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

After the Habsburg king of Spain died without heirs a war began between the British, the Dutch, and the French as to who was going to take over the throne
Theme: Centralization of Power

Peace of Utrecht

1713

Several documents signed that ended the Spanish Wars of Succession
Theme:

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Transition to new manufacturing processes
Theme: Progression of Technology

Diderot's "Encyclopedia"

1751

Famous for containing the new thoughts and ideas of the enlightenment

Thomas Malthus

1766 - 1834

Believed that the population would eventually out grow the resources available
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Women's March on Versailles

1789

Group of angry women gather revolutionary followers as they storm the palace of Versailles with armor and weapons beginning the French Revolution

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

After revolutionaries take the monarchy hostage they let their demands known and thus begins the French Revolution in demolishing age old institutions of power

Estates General

1789

Calling of the different social classes to improve the state of France, did not go as planned...at all...

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

Representatives of the third estate sign an oath of their power in defiance of Louis XVI

Romanticism

1800 - 1850

Movement after the scientific revolution focusing on emotions, irrationality, and nature
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Alexander II

1818 - 1881

Known as the Liberator Alexander II frees the serfs of Russia from serfdom because he believed that serfdom held Russia back from becoming a greater power
Theme: The Rights of (Social) Classes

Alexander II

1818 - 1881

Known as the Liberator Alexander II frees the serfs of Russia from serfdom because he believed that serfdom held Russia back from becoming a greater power
Theme: The Rights of (Social) Classes

Joseph Lister

1827 - 1912

Worked alongside many other scientists to prove the Germ Theory - created antiseptic surgery
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Nationalism

1848 - 1900

Nationalism swept through Europe after the romantic movement and gave people pride not just for their country but also for nationality and language
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858 - 1928

Leader of the Suffragettes
Theme: Progression of Women's Rights

Unification of Italy

1859 - 1870

Camillo di Cavour sets off taking over small territories in Italy to gain followers and territory with the intentions to take over/unify all of Germany
Theme: Centralization of Government

Unification of Germany

1864 - 1871

Bismarck runs the Austrian people living in Germany and then created a war for Germany to fight against a common enemy (France) as Germany allied with Prussia as a unified country
Theme: Centralization of Power

First International

1864 - 1876

Group of working class extremists that fought against working class struggles
Theme: The Rights of (Social) Classes

Education Act of 1870

1870

Act put into use to make school mandatory for elementary age children in England
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Public Health Act

1875

Gave the british government the authority to intervene in lives of citizens when it threatened the health of others or themselves because people were starting to understand germ theory and started to clean up the cities
Theme: Progression of Thought and Knowledge

Married Woman's Property Act 1882

1882

Gave women the right to actually own property and if they got divorced they could take land
Theme: Progression of Women's Rights

Post Impressionism

1886 - 1905

Art becomes more realistic focusing on movement and expression
Theme: Transition of Art

Women's Social and Political Union

1903 - 1917

Group of women that fought for women's suffrage (violent)
Theme: Progression of Women's Rights

Women's Social and Political Union

1903 - 1917

Group of women that fought for women's suffrage (violent)
Theme: Progression of the Rights of Women

Suffragettes

1906

Group of women founded to fight for the voting rights of women (non-violent)
Theme: Progression on Women's Rights