Natural Resources, a growing population, and new inventions caused European societies to move towards industrialization, which led to the process of urbanization, where many people began a move towards the city.
Was used often during the 1600s and meant that people would create products at home with materials provided by merchant employers.
positions seeds in the soil and covers them, allowing for more efficient production of food.
Created by John Kay and allows a weaver to weave much wider products
People fenced in their land to increase the production of crops
a multi-spinning frame for cotton spinning
Used steam to generate power
water-powered spinning frame
Mechanized loom powered by a line shaft
A device that removed the seeds from the cotton
Thomas Malthus addressed the issue of the population growth that occurred during the Industrial Revolution. He said that the population was growing too quickly for the food supply.
Allowed easier transportation for people, which meant more people could travel to and from cities more quickly.
Allowed more people and goods to travel to the city
Machine with mechanically driven needle for sewing
His process made steel easier and quicker to produce and made structural engineering easier.
Church corruption, such as the selling of indulgences, caused a change in religious ideologies for many people throughout Europe. This ultimately led to the creation of more secular institutes and the spread of Protestantism throughout the continent. However, as Protestantism spread, Catholics tried to regain their power.
The Bible was translated into English by John Wycliffe and it inspired the Lollard Movement, which was a movement that rejected many of the teachings of Roman Catholicism..
Luther posted his 95 Thesis on the church wall, which was a list of criticisms of the church
People could buy indulgences to cancel one's sins
Was a defender of Catholicism and attacked Luther's views.
Urged secular rulers to reform a church that wouldn't set it's own house in order
Luther was excommunicated from the Catholic Church and his beliefs were banned from being taught
Council that met to decide the fate of Luther
Written by Ignatius Loyola and was a compilation of things Loyola suggested one should do in order to deepen their relationship with God
Written by Zwingli, a protestant reformer, and discussed the need for reform in the Catholic Church
Summoned by Henry VIII and it passed the major pieces of legislation that led to the English Reformation.
Written by John Calvin as an introduction to Protestantism that attacked the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
Called by Pope Paul III and was a central feature of the Counter Reformation. They tried to condemn and refute the beliefs of Protestants, in order to bring them back to the Catholic Church.
Gave princes the ability to choose whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was the main religion in the land they ruled over
Passed in England and said that everyone had to go to church once a week or be fined 12 pence
Occurred during the French Wars of Religion and resulted in the murder of thousands of Huguenots
Doctrine standard of the Lutheran Church
Signed by King Henry IV and gave Huguenots substantial rights in France
Ferdinand II tried to restore the religious and territorial situatuions in the HRE, from the Peace of Augsburg
Allowed Jews to enter British Parliament
As subjects began to resist power, rulers would try to strengthen their position by centralizing the government. These attempts were often successful, which led to societies in which the rulers obtained great power.
Written by Machiavelli and said that rulers should do whatever is necessary to make their nation more powerful.
Ruled in the HRE and brought together many territories under his rule.
Issued by Henry VIII and gave ecclesiastical authority to the monarchy
Confirmed Queen Elizabeth as supreme governor of the Church of England
Ruled in Great Britain and depended on a group of advisers. Her reign brought stability to Great Britain and a sense of national identity.
Ruled in France and created an inner circle of government with a few trusted advisers.
Ruled in Russia and brought the Russian Orthodox Church under control of the government.
Written by Boussuet and says that kings receive absolute power from God.
Oppressive and conservative governing policies caused
unrest throughout much of European history. Unrest appeared in the form of protests and revolutions, which led to failure in some cases, but resulted in reform for others.
Rebellion among laborers in Florence, Italy who because they were unable to participate in the government, due to not belonging to any guilds.
Peasants wanted relief from the economic hardship that they faced.
Began when the HRE tried to impose religious uniformity
Catholic Irish led uprising because of resentment due to the loss of their lands to Protestant settlers.
Parisians stormed the Bastille to get ammunition.
Rebellions broke out as Greeks pushed for independence from the Ottoman Empire.
Russian army officers protested against the rule of Nicholas I, who was very conservative.
King Charles X was overthrown and Louis Phillipe became ruler.
Countries all across the continent experienced unrest as people revolted to try and achieve equal rights for the middle class.
Secularized thought and a new interest in the natural world caused many new scientific developments across Europe, which led to discoveries in medicine and a new understanding of the universe.
Copernicus explained that the sun was at the center of the universe, not the earth.
Hans Lippershey invented the telescope, which was later improved by Galileo and used to look at the sky. This led to new discoveries about the sun, moon, and planets.
Written by Galileo and discussed his observations of the moons of Jupiter and the uneven surface of the moon.
Written by Galileo and explain his observations of the sun and his conclusion that there are spots on the sun that we can see at different times, as the sun is rotated monthly.
Written by Johannes Kepler and discussed his discovery of the third law of planetary motion.
Written by Francis Bacon and said that people should make detailed observations and inductive reasoning to come to conclusions.
Written by William Harvey and explained the circulatory system.
Said that people should use reasoning, or deductive methods to come to conclusions.
Written by Newton and discuss his laws of motion and universal gravitation.
Written by Charles Darwin and explains that animals evolve over time and that random mutations lead to the creation of new species.
Due to the fact that in the past, women were viewed as inferior to men, whose main role was to be a caretaker and stay at home, they often missed out on participating in society. However, as time progressed, women slowly gained more freedom and some of the rights that men held.
Book written by Christine de Pisan that confronted the sexism that characterized the representations of women.
Allowed women to preach in church, which is something that most other forms of Christianity did not allow.
Women were persecuted for witch-craft.
During the Enlightenment, women hosted gatherings and discussed various ideas about politics and science.
Written by Rosseau and said that because women are meant to be caretakers, their educational needs differ from those of men.
Women marched to Versailles and demanded lower bread prices
Written by Olympe de Gouges and was a spin on the Declaration of the Rights of Man. It implied that women should have the same rights as men.
Written by Mary Wollstonecraft and argued that women should be granted the same opportunities as men.
Many unmarried women found work at factories in the city
Women finally became allowed to vote for the first time, in Finland. Other countries soon followed with granting women's suffrage.