AP European History Timeline

Theme 1 - Industrialization

Natural Resources, a growing population, and new inventions caused European societies to move towards industrialization, which led to the process of urbanization, where many people began a move towards the city.

Putting-Out System

1600 - 1700

Was used often during the 1600s and meant that people would create products at home with materials provided by merchant employers.

Seed Drill invented


positions seeds in the soil and covers them, allowing for more efficient production of food.

Flying Shuttle


Created by John Kay and allows a weaver to weave much wider products

Enclosure Movement

1760 - 1832

People fenced in their land to increase the production of crops

Spinning Jenny


a multi-spinning frame for cotton spinning

steam engine patent


Used steam to generate power

Water Frame


water-powered spinning frame

power loom


Mechanized loom powered by a line shaft

cotton gin


A device that removed the seeds from the cotton

Essay on Population


Thomas Malthus addressed the issue of the population growth that occurred during the Industrial Revolution. He said that the population was growing too quickly for the food supply.

First passenger train line


Allowed easier transportation for people, which meant more people could travel to and from cities more quickly.

Creation of railroads

1830 - 1860

Allowed more people and goods to travel to the city

sewing machine


Machine with mechanically driven needle for sewing

Bessemer's New Process for Making Steel


His process made steel easier and quicker to produce and made structural engineering easier.

Theme 2 - Religion

Church corruption, such as the selling of indulgences, caused a change in religious ideologies for many people throughout Europe. This ultimately led to the creation of more secular institutes and the spread of Protestantism throughout the continent. However, as Protestantism spread, Catholics tried to regain their power.

Wycliffe's Bible


The Bible was translated into English by John Wycliffe and it inspired the Lollard Movement, which was a movement that rejected many of the teachings of Roman Catholicism..

95 Theses


Luther posted his 95 Thesis on the church wall, which was a list of criticisms of the church

Plenary Jubilee Indulgence Revived by Pope Leo X


People could buy indulgences to cancel one's sins

Johann Eck


Was a defender of Catholicism and attacked Luther's views.

Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation published


Urged secular rulers to reform a church that wouldn't set it's own house in order

Luther's Excommunication


Luther was excommunicated from the Catholic Church and his beliefs were banned from being taught

Diet of Worms


Council that met to decide the fate of Luther

The Spiritual Exercises


Written by Ignatius Loyola and was a compilation of things Loyola suggested one should do in order to deepen their relationship with God

Commentary on True and False Religion


Written by Zwingli, a protestant reformer, and discussed the need for reform in the Catholic Church

Reformation Parliament


Summoned by Henry VIII and it passed the major pieces of legislation that led to the English Reformation.

Institutes of the Christian Religion


Written by John Calvin as an introduction to Protestantism that attacked the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Called by Pope Paul III and was a central feature of the Counter Reformation. They tried to condemn and refute the beliefs of Protestants, in order to bring them back to the Catholic Church.

Peace of Augsburg


Gave princes the ability to choose whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was the main religion in the land they ruled over

Act of Uniformity


Passed in England and said that everyone had to go to church once a week or be fined 12 pence

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Occurred during the French Wars of Religion and resulted in the murder of thousands of Huguenots

The Book of Concord


Doctrine standard of the Lutheran Church

Edict of Nantes


Signed by King Henry IV and gave Huguenots substantial rights in France

Edict of Restitution


Ferdinand II tried to restore the religious and territorial situatuions in the HRE, from the Peace of Augsburg

Jewish Relief Act


Allowed Jews to enter British Parliament

Theme 3 - Centralization of Power

As subjects began to resist power, rulers would try to strengthen their position by centralizing the government. These attempts were often successful, which led to societies in which the rulers obtained great power.

The Prince


Written by Machiavelli and said that rulers should do whatever is necessary to make their nation more powerful.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Ruled in the HRE and brought together many territories under his rule.

Act of Supremacy 1534


Issued by Henry VIII and gave ecclesiastical authority to the monarchy

Act of Supremacy 1558


Confirmed Queen Elizabeth as supreme governor of the Church of England

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Ruled in Great Britain and depended on a group of advisers. Her reign brought stability to Great Britain and a sense of national identity.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Ruled in France and created an inner circle of government with a few trusted advisers.

Peter the Great

1689 - 1725

Ruled in Russia and brought the Russian Orthodox Church under control of the government.

Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture


Written by Boussuet and says that kings receive absolute power from God.

Theme 4 - Unrest

Oppressive and conservative governing policies caused
unrest throughout much of European history. Unrest appeared in the form of protests and revolutions, which led to failure in some cases, but resulted in reform for others.

Ciompi Revolt


Rebellion among laborers in Florence, Italy who because they were unable to participate in the government, due to not belonging to any guilds.

German Peasant Revolt


Peasants wanted relief from the economic hardship that they faced.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Began when the HRE tried to impose religious uniformity

Irish Rebellion


Catholic Irish led uprising because of resentment due to the loss of their lands to Protestant settlers.

Storming of the Bastille


Parisians stormed the Bastille to get ammunition.

War of Greek independence

1821 - 1832

Rebellions broke out as Greeks pushed for independence from the Ottoman Empire.

Decembrist Revolt


Russian army officers protested against the rule of Nicholas I, who was very conservative.

July Revolution


King Charles X was overthrown and Louis Phillipe became ruler.

Revolutions of 1848


Countries all across the continent experienced unrest as people revolted to try and achieve equal rights for the middle class.

Theme 5 - New Scientific Discoveries

Secularized thought and a new interest in the natural world caused many new scientific developments across Europe, which led to discoveries in medicine and a new understanding of the universe.

Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres


Copernicus explained that the sun was at the center of the universe, not the earth.



Hans Lippershey invented the telescope, which was later improved by Galileo and used to look at the sky. This led to new discoveries about the sun, moon, and planets.

Starry Messenger


Written by Galileo and discussed his observations of the moons of Jupiter and the uneven surface of the moon.

Letters on Sunspots


Written by Galileo and explain his observations of the sun and his conclusion that there are spots on the sun that we can see at different times, as the sun is rotated monthly.

Harmonices Mundi


Written by Johannes Kepler and discussed his discovery of the third law of planetary motion.

Novum Organum


Written by Francis Bacon and said that people should make detailed observations and inductive reasoning to come to conclusions.

On the Motion of the Heart and Blood


Written by William Harvey and explained the circulatory system.

Discourse on the Mind


Said that people should use reasoning, or deductive methods to come to conclusions.

Principia Mathematica


Written by Newton and discuss his laws of motion and universal gravitation.

On the Origin of Species


Written by Charles Darwin and explains that animals evolve over time and that random mutations lead to the creation of new species.

Theme 6 - Women

Due to the fact that in the past, women were viewed as inferior to men, whose main role was to be a caretaker and stay at home, they often missed out on participating in society. However, as time progressed, women slowly gained more freedom and some of the rights that men held.

City of Ladies


Book written by Christine de Pisan that confronted the sexism that characterized the representations of women.



Allowed women to preach in church, which is something that most other forms of Christianity did not allow.

Which hunts

1580 - 1630

Women were persecuted for witch-craft.


1600 - 1700

During the Enlightenment, women hosted gatherings and discussed various ideas about politics and science.



Written by Rosseau and said that because women are meant to be caretakers, their educational needs differ from those of men.

March on Versailles


Women marched to Versailles and demanded lower bread prices

Declaration of the rights of Woman and the Female Citizen


Written by Olympe de Gouges and was a spin on the Declaration of the Rights of Man. It implied that women should have the same rights as men.

A Vindication Of the Rights of Women


Written by Mary Wollstonecraft and argued that women should be granted the same opportunities as men.

Women in factories

1820 - 1830

Many unmarried women found work at factories in the city

Female Suffrage


Women finally became allowed to vote for the first time, in Finland. Other countries soon followed with granting women's suffrage.