Europe Part 5*


Est. of Spanish Inquisition


by Ferdinand and Isabela

King Henry VIII's Reign

1509 - 1547

couldn't get permission from Pope to divorce his wife, left Roman and English churches and took wealth

95 Theses


published by Martin Luther, denounced indulgences, spread because of printing press

Reign of Charles V

1519 - 1556

tried to get Martin Luther to recant, inherited Habsburgs' Austrian land, duchy of Burgundy, and Spain

Martin Luther excommunicated


by Pope Leo X

Institutions of the Christian Religion


published by John Calvin, French Lawyer, who went to Switzerland and converted to Protestantism

Society of Jesus formed


by St. Ignatius Loyala, wanted to spread the reformed Roman Catholicism

Copernicus publishes treatise


On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, broke from Ptolemaic model
said Earth revolved around sun, Renaissance

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

group of church officials who met to reform Catholicism, inspired by St. Thomas Aquinas

Reign of Philip II

1556 - 1598

inherited Spain from his dad, Charles V
tried to suppress Calvinism in Netherlands, failed

Philip II makes Madrid capital



1564 - 1642

showed heavens weren't perfect, broke from Ptolemy and Aristotle


1571 - 1630

planets are eliptical

United Provinces formed


from Dutch provinces against Spanish

Phillip II v Elizabeth


sent Spanish Armada, England sent burning ships into their fleet

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

mainly took place in Germany, religious war

John Locke

1632 - 1704

published An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
tried to understand natural law
thought people were the product of their environment

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

royal financial policies, also religious tension
Anglicans likes ornate churches, Puritans (Calvinsts) didn't want it because it suggested RC


1642 - 1727

Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687)
astronomy, laws of gravity

Louis XIV reign

1643 - 1715

The Sun King, had palace at Versailles where he entertained nobles so that he could rule in peace, was an absolute monarch
"l'etat, c'est moi"

Peace of Westphalia


Peter the Great Reign

1682 - 1725

absolute monarch of Russia, went to Europe in '97-98, behaved crudely by European standards tried to reform, paid army more, made aristocrats study,

The Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

bloodless change of power, parliament deposed King James II and got his daughter Mary and William of Orange to take throne

Baron de Montesquieu

1689 - 1755

wanted a balance between politics and science


1694 - 1778

Francois Marie Arouet
against French monarchy and RC
Deism, ecrasez l'infame

Emilie du Chatelet

1708 - 1749

French mathematician and physicist, Voltaire's mistress, fluent in six languages by age 12, married to the Marquis du Chatlet
translated Newton's Principia Mathematica, still the standard French translation

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

of Scotland, capitalism

Catherine II Reign

1762 - 1796

couldn't reform as much, restricted punishments that serfs could receive, faced rebellion in '73 and '74 from Yemelian Pugachev