AP Euro Timeline- Mayela Pelayo

Events

Gothic

1200 - 1420

Theme: Art and Literature

What: Monumental sculpture on the walls of cathedrals and abbeys; pointed arches, high towers, tall and narrow; allow in as much light as possible; cathedrals

Renaissance in Italy

1304 - 1550

Theme: Art and Literature

What: Individualism, nature, classicism, symmetry, linear perspective, greek principles; A rebirth of the visual arts

Printing Press

1440

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: People could read and increase their knowledge more easily now, whereas in the past it was common for people to be quite uneducated, as well as developed markets, propaganda, news, etc.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1648

Theme: Urbanization
What: The mixing of populations in Europe and the new world, America so trade increased and spare money at homes could be spent on goods.

Johan Tetzel

1502 - 1509

Theme: Catholicism vs Protestantism

What: For arousing the ire of Martin Luther by his outrageous claims for the sale of Catholic indulgences; given the task of raising money for the building of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

Machiavelli's The Prince

1513

Theme: Absolutism

What: Argues that rulers should do whatever they think is necessary to obtain what they want and make their nation more powerful. He also believed rulers should not deal with their subjects, nor rule with their consent.

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Theme: Catholicism vs Protestantism

What: Reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice

95 Theses by Luther

1517

Theme: Catholicism vs Protestantism

What: Questioned the Catholic Church's practice of selling indulgences and view skeptically the notion that a papal pardon rather than penance or genuine contrition can achieve forgiveness of sins. Luther argued that Christians were being falsely told that they could obtain absolution for souls in purgatory by buying indulgences.

Diet of Worms

April 1521

Theme: Catholicism vs Protestantism

What: Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, and Pope Leo X, called upon Luther to recant. He refused, saying that unless they could prove him wrong using scripture,

Copernicus: On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres

1543

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: Copernicus carefully developed his theory mathematically, and he skillfully uses all of the available data in support of his theory and in the criticism of the Ptolemaic epicycle theory of planetary motion that then was the most popular and known theory.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Theme: Catholicism vs Protestantism

What: Most important movement of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church’s first important reply to Protestant Reformation; main purpose to condemn and refute the beliefs of the Protestants; played a vital role in revitalizing the Roman Catholic Church in many parts of Europe.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: Brahe provided important, extensive observations of planets that were used by many of the scientists including his assistant, Johannes Kepler, who proved planets orbited around the sun in an oval pathway.

Ivan the Terrible

1547 - 1584

Theme: Absolutism

What: Expanded Russia eastward; lessened the power of the nobility (known as the boyars)

Scientific Revolution

1550 - 1700

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: The emergence of modern science; developments in math, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry.

Peace of Augsburg

September 1555

Theme: Catholicism vs Protestantism

What: Gave each German prince the right to determine the religion of his state (Catholicism or Lutheranism) based on the ruler of the region

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1750

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: Advancement created new inventions such as the open field system, drainage, and introduced more food variety and greater quantities

Dutch Golden Age

1600 - 1700

Theme: Art and Literature

What: Dutch masters started to prevail art world when they created depth of realistic portraits of people and life in areas that weren't surpassed often

Baroque

1600 - 1750

Theme: Art and Literature

What: Qualities- Dramatic, dark, movement, tension, emotional exuberance, blurs; focus on Saints, Virgin Mary and other Biblical stories because of its emergence during protestant reformation

Galileo

1610 CE - 1611 CE

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: Provides evidence for heliocentric and is put on trial by the Church, because he was causing controversy to old beliefs.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Theme: Catholicism vs Protestantism

What: (Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, French Phases) Caused by the exclusion of Calvinists from the Peace of Augsburg.

Cardinal Richelieu

1624 - 1642

Theme: Absolutism

What: Laid foundation for absolutism by centralizing power; politique

Bishop Jaques Bossuet

1627 - 1704

Theme: Absolutism

What: Advocated divine rights of kings in France during Louis XIV's rule

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Theme: Constitutional Government

What: Argued that individuals have natural rights of life, political equality, and property that could not be violated by a political leader and believed governments existed only to protect these natural rights. Subjects could rebel.

Cardinal Mazarin

1642 - 1661

Theme: Absolutism

What: controlled France when Louis XIV was a child (regent); more concerned w/ personal wealth

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Theme: Absolutism

What: King Louis XIV of France led an absolute monarchy during France’s classical age. He revoked the Edict of Nantes and is known for his aggressive foreign policy.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

Theme: Constitutional Government

What: The nobility attempted to rebel against the government but lost its support from the other classes.

Enlightenment

1650 - 1750

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: European thinkers’ interest in the tangible world developed into scientific study, while greater exploration of the world exposed Europe to other cultures and philosophies. Finally, centuries of mistreatment at the hands of monarchies and the church brought average citizens in Europe to a breaking point, and the most intelligent and vocal finally decided to speak out.

Versailles is constructed

1682

Theme: Absolutism

What: Central part of a complex that housed the French government, most notably its royalty, during the reigns of Louis XIV (France’s famed “Sun King”)

Revocation of Edict of Nantes

1685

Theme: Absolutism

What: Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes because he wanted to create religious conformity to increase his power.

Glorious revolution

1688 - 1689

Theme: Absolutism

What: the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau.

Peter the Great

1689 - 1725

Theme: Absolutism

What: He centralised government, modernised the army, created a navy and increased the subjugation and subjection of the peasants in russia

Enlightenment Salons

1700 - 1800

Theme: Women' s Rights

What: Gave educated women a voice in cultural affairs and a chance to participate in intellectual meetings and gatherings.

Neoclassicism

1700 - 1800

Theme: Art and Literature

What: Renewed interest in harmony, simplicity, and proportion, an interest that gained momentum as the new science of archaeology brought forth spectacular remnants of a buried world of great beauty

Frederick I of Prussia

1701 - 1713

Theme: Absolutism

What: Frederick I was the first king of Prussia. He ruled from 1701 to 1713 and helped establish Prussia’s cultural significance in Europe.

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Theme: Absolutism

What: Emperor Charles VI, an absolute monarch, wanted to ensure that the hereditary possessions of the Habsburgs could be inherited by a daughter

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Theme: Absolutism

What: The only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions thanks to her dad, charles vi; the last of the House of Habsburg

Olympe de Gouges

1748 - 1793

Theme: Women's Rights

What: Wrote the Declaration to the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in which she demanded that French women get the same rights as men

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Theme: New innovations and inventions

What: a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking.

Rousseau writes treatise on Social Contract

1762 - 1763

Theme: Constitutional Government

What: Agreed with Locke that individuals should give up natural rights to king; general will.

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Theme: Constitutional Government

What: As a follower of the enlightenment, she put together a group of delegates to determine people's wishes that would allow here to compose a constitution; failed because was seen as too liberal.

Steam Engine

1769

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: Factories that still relied on wind or water power to drive their machines during the Industrial Revolution had to be near a water source; steam meant that factories could be built anywhere, not just along fast-flowing rivers.

Bank of England

1788 - 1823

Theme: Urbanization

What: Central bank which issued uniform bank notes, extended short-term loans, and provided means for transferring capital for investment purposes, especially to the middle class that could afford/wanted to invest

National Assembly

1789 - 1791

Theme: Constitutional Government

What: Most of the members of the National Assembly wished to create a constitutional monarchy.

Womens' March at Versailles

October 5, 1789

Theme: Women's Rights

What: Demand cheap bread and to force the royal family to move to paris; did not gain the right to vote

Romanticism

1800

Theme: Art and Literature

What: Shows emotion, passion, nature, revolution; Mostly in France, England, and Spain.

Railroad

1820

Theme: Scientific/Technological Developments

What: Helped to increase safety and efficiency in coal mines; production of coal increased steadily, from 2 1/2 million to more than 15 million; everyone wanted railroads to pass through and benefit their regions

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858 - 1928

Theme: Women's Rights

What: An English feminist-militant in her demands-heckled politicians and held public demonstrations.

Georges von Haussmann

1860 - 1869

Theme: Urbanization

What: Redeveloped Paris; widened boulevards (partially to prevent
barricades), better middle-class housing on the outskirts of
the city, demolition of slums and creation of parks and open spaces.

Russian Serfs Emancipated

1861

Theme: Absolutism

What: Alexander II emancipated the serfs to allow Russia to finally catch up with the rest of Europe; Alexander II was still not appreciated with the change

Subjection of Women

1869

Theme: Women's Rights

What: Argued that the social and legal inequalities imposed on women were a relic from the past to persuade equal rights for women

Education Act of 1870

1870

Theme: Urbanization

What: Education became the responsibility of the government

Artisan Dwelling Act

1875

Theme: Urbanization

What: Government became involved in providing housing for the working class as the working class kept coming into the city.

Public Health Act

1875

Theme: Urbanization

What: Reaffirmed the duty of the state to interfere to protect public health and well-being.

Married Women's Property Act

1882

Theme: Women's Rights

What: Allowed married women to own and control property in their own right.

Women's Social and Political Union

1903 - 1917

Theme: Women's Rights

What: Union that fought for women's rights but eventually turned to violence; best known for hunger strikes (and forced feeding), for breaking windows in prominent buildings, and for night-time arson of unoccupied houses and churches.

1905 Revolution

1905

Theme: Constitutional Government

What: Worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to Constitutional Reform including the establishment of the State Puma of the Russian Empire, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906

Parliament

1912 - 1960

Theme: Constitutional Government

What: Parliament wanted the ability to have more power instead of the ruler having complete power; allied with nobles, and wealthy merchants.