Writes of "histoire ancienne" that preceded the "histoire moderne" as well as of "temps modernes" and "progres de l'esprit humain"
interprets historical events radically divergent from Christian tradition.
Synthesis of search for meaning in historical process and importance of Aufklarung
representation of Enlightenment as enthronement of thought; final decisive stage of self-estranged spirit. Ruthlessly excluding all recourse to authority principle or example of past or force of tradition ending up with Revolution and Reign of Terror.
Shifted focus from primacy of subject to spirit, maker of reality.