Enlightenment

Publications

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637

Voltaire Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations

1756

Writes of "histoire ancienne" that preceded the "histoire moderne" as well as of "temps modernes" and "progres de l'esprit humain"

Voltaire "philosophie de l'histoire"

1765

interprets historical events radically divergent from Christian tradition.

Kant "Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View"

1784

Synthesis of search for meaning in historical process and importance of Aufklarung

Kant Was Ist Aufklarung?

November 1784

Hegel Philosophy of History

1837

representation of Enlightenment as enthronement of thought; final decisive stage of self-estranged spirit. Ruthlessly excluding all recourse to authority principle or example of past or force of tradition ending up with Revolution and Reign of Terror.

NIetzsche Birth of Tragedy

1872

Lives

Descartes

1596 - 1650

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Immanuel Kant

1724 - 1804

Friedrich Hegel

1770 - 1831

Shifted focus from primacy of subject to spirit, maker of reality.

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

NIetzsche

1844 - 1900

Michel Foucault

1926 - 1984

Events

Congress of Vienna

September 1814 - June 1815