Reign of Napoleon

1769 - 1821

Crowned himself as Emperor of France, he was considered to one of the best military leaders and strategists. He was also a great supervisor, he created a strong central government, and organized the French laws into what was called 'codes.' Napoleon, being such an ambitious leader of his country, controlled many military movements, as well as being in charge of France's press, police system, and foreign policy. His downfall was caused not just by overextending his power and putting too much effort into keeping the British goods out of the rest of Europe, but also byt being defeated in battle.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The aftermath of this revolution was the independent United States of America, on the outcome of the Revolutionary War. The war was between the British and the colonists on whether or not the colonies should be self-regulating from British overseas. The revolution began with the rage and tension that was brought on between British and the colonies, the British had set taxes on the colonists to keep order over the colonists, this resulted in rebellion and war. After ten years of pressure and eight years through the Revolutionary War, they both signed a treaty that granted the colonies freedom

Simon Bolivar

1783 - 1830

Simon Bolivar, because he gained the independence for Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, he is considered one of the best generals in South American history. Simon Bolivar married a women that was born in Venezuela, after she died he swore to return to her home country and free it. Throughout his tour of South America he conquered unruly governments and liberated many different countries, making him a well known hero. Although a hero, feelings about him changed, and he narrowly escaped being assassinated, having to resign as president of Colombia, later dying the same year.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Lasting for a century, the French Revolution made drastic changes to the country and greatly affected the rest of Europe. Politically, after the revolution the middle class, or third estate, gained more privileges, although they did not gain a democracy. First the revolution began with a movement of reform called the moderate phase, next was the radical phase, also known as the Reign of Terror. This was when many people were killed and murdered. Then there was the directory phase which made France an oligarchy, last there was the Consulate phase, which ended the revolution in a Monarchy, with the benefit to the middle class

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

The Haitian Revolution was a revolution in the French colonies that were basically inspired by the French Revolution. Throughout the revolution the people rebelled against its government, one man, Toussaint Loeverture was a Haitian general that led a slave army to battle against French armies. He was trialed for treachery and was sentenced to a life time in a prison in France. Haiti gained its freedom, but harldy any good came from it, the economy went down and the politics became dictators after dictators.

Cotton Gin developed


The Cotton Gin is a machine invented by Eli Whitney, that was used for removing the seeds from the cotton itself. When the machine would be cranked the cotton would go through a line of metal teeth that separated into a little space that the seeds were too enter. Then the cotton was deposited into a slot and was brushed out, this machine could do the work of 50 men. This is what made the United States the leading cotton producer in the world.

Wars of Independence in Latin America

1808 - 1826

Because the French and American Revolutions had such an impact on the Spanish, French, and Portuguese colonies in Latin America started to get the same idea, which is what caused the Wars of Independence. These wars were uprooted from the social, political and culture rule that these colonies had suffered under for many years. Other reasons for the revolt where ideas of enlightenment, revolutionary leaders were beginning to emerge, and the growth of nationalism. When the wars ended, many countries in Latin America had been freed.

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

The Congress of Vienna were meetings held to address the matter of what to do with France after the rest of Europe defeated them in war. The congress's main representatives were leaders from the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. The Congress restored many of the great leaders of France that were brought down by Napoleon and the French Revolution. To keep France from revolting the Congress put bases surrounding them that were controlled by stronger countries.

1st Opium War

1839 - 1842

The First Opium War, also know n as the First Anglo- Chinese War, was fought between the Qing Dynasty, China and the United Kingdom. The war was fought because of incompatible perspectives such as, government, trade and diplomatic relations. The Chinese wished to stop the flow of silver from the country and to start using more opium instead. The British strongly disagreed and with their new military, enforced that disagreement.

. 'Communist Manifesto' published


"Communist Manifesto" is a book written by two German Marxist political theorists, Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels. Custom-built by the Communist League, it is considered to be one of the most influential political document. Instead of speaking of the communism future, the book tells about the Communist League, the problems of capitalism, and the struggle of social class. Although it does say that eventually capitalism will be replaced by socialism, and then finally by communism.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

The Taiping Rebellion was basically a civil war in China that lasted almost 15 years. The revolt was led by a heterodox Christian, Hong Xiuquan, who declared he had visions that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. The Taiping forces set up camps, and a community called, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, this kingdom controlled great amounts of land and also contained 30 million people. The Taiping people tried to established new reforms believing in "property in common, they also tried to replace Confucianism and Buddhism with other forms of Christianity.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Fought between Russia and the allied forces of the Ottoman Empire, Britain, France and Sardinia, the Crimean War was named after the Crimean Peninsula, where most of the war's fighting took place. The conflict of the war was due to religion, commercial, and rivalries between different allies and Russia. Because of Russia's lack of railroads, supplies and reinforcements, they were defeated, they signed the Treaty of Paris on March 30, 1856. The treaty made Russia give up some of its land, and forbid it to have warships near the Black Sea.

Opening of Japan


In 1854 an U.S. naval officer signed the treaty with Japan that announced the doors to be opened for trade with Japan. America needed the resources that the mysterious Japanese Kingdom held, it had been closed for trade to everyone on exception of a few Dutch trading vessels. The treaty that the naval officer, Matthew Perry, had signed with the Japanese ministers was the Treaty of Kanagawa. The opening of Japan led to expansion of the American mind and many others.

Sepoy Rebellion


The Sepoy Rebellion was an act of revolt by a group of India's that called themselves the Sepoys. The Sepoys were a group that was controlled by the British. The British had gained control of over 2/3 of India's land and the imperialism idea had started to began affected almost everything the Indians did. The first uprising wad at the garrison in Meerut, this was where the Sepoys murdered every European in sight.

Origin of Species' published


The book "Origin of Species" written by Charles Darwin, is a very valuable piece of scientific literature. The book being considered to be the foundation of biology it introduces the idea of population evolving and forming new species. Darwin's ideas attracted many controversy and debate over the evolution idea. After reading his book and seeing his evidence many began to agree with Darwin, and now the idea of evolution is a modern concept between scientists.

Emancipation of Russian Serfs


The Emancipation of the Russian Serfs was to free the serfs from the rule of the higher powers. Because of the defeat in the Crimean War Russian began to look weak and feared that the serfs would begin to revolt. At the beginning of the freedom the slaves were not free, they still had to pay l former owners obedience and they could not own land. Finally after nine years the slaves were actually free.

Meji Restoration


The Meji restoration was a string of events that restored the imperial rule in Japan. This made great changes on the social class, and politics in Japan, thus beginning the Meji period. The main reason of the Meji period was the affect of Commodore Matthew Perry coming to ask to reopen trade with the world, the Japanese could see how far behind they were from the world just from the ships that the U.S had sent. The Meji restoration symbolized for enlightening their country, their military became more advanced and Japan began to catch up with the rest of the world.

Suez Canal completed


The Suez Canal is a fake waterway that joins the Mediterranean Sea, and the Red Sea. When it was first built it served reduced the distance by half to transport materials between the United Kingdom and India. Originally the canal was 26 feet deep, 72 feet wide at the bottom and 320 feet wide at the top. Now since the canal has been enlarged it is 64 feet deep and 741 feet wide at the top.

Unification of Italy


The Unification of Italy was the political and social association that brought the different states on the Italian Peninsula together to make one big boot called Italy. Scholars believe that the Unification began with the Congress of Vienna and ended with the Napoleonic rule. Some problems that occurred that affected the unification process were the sovereignty of the Pope, other states that had already gained freedom, and Austrian occupation of some of the peninsula up North. Eventually the peninsula worked through all the problems and had formed a new country in 1871.

Unification of Germany


The Unification of Germany occurred at the Palace of Versailles in France. The Princes of the German state met up to announce Wilhem of Prussia to be the leader of Germany. Throughout the century Germany experimented on the transitions it would make, including religion, language and cultural. Over the years the community began to lose the competitiveness that had grown between the states.

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

The Berlin Conference were 14 meetings held to discuss the territorial disagreement of African land. Many countries had representatives attend the meetings, including the U.S., the United Kingdom, France and Britain, although no African countries were invited to the meetings. The European countries wanted so bad to expand their territory during this time, they called the meetings in hope to prevent wars caused by the land. The conferences were held in Berlin, Germany for a full year.

Indian National Congress founded


Having been constructed in 1885 it is the oldest political organization in India. The Indian National Congress was a political party that had many liberal beliefs. After India had received independence the congress's goal was to construct a secular democratic government, they supported a new modern country. Later though the congress began to decline from power as many more political parties began to form.

Boxer Rebellion

1900 - 1901

The Boxer rebellion was a movement in China conflicting foreign imperialism and Christianity. The revolt took place from complaint of opium traders, political invasions, economical manipulations and even missionary evangelism. At the beginning the Boxers wanted to destroy the Ch'ing dynasty and rid China of all foreign influences. Later they changed to just ridding China of foreigners, they began to massacre all foreigners in their area