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Judea/Palestine in Antiquity
Destruction of first, Solomonic Temple; Exile of local elite to Babylon.
539 BCE - 334 BCE
After Persian conquest of Babylon, Cyrus allows exiles to return.
Temple rebuilt in Jerusalem.
516 BCE - 515 BCE
334 BCE - 63 BCE
Alexander conquers Judea (and everything else!).
333 BCE - 331 BCE
Judea bounces back and forth between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. Hebrew Bible translated into Greek.
323 BCE - 168 BCE
The Seleucids take Palestine back from Egypt.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king of the Seleucids; factional fighting increases.
Maccabean revolt, culminating in the rededication of the Temple (Festival of Hannukah).
168 BCE - 164 BCE
Profanation of the Temple by Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
164 BCE - 63 BCE
Romans conquer Jerusalem. Under Pompey, Rome takes over and installs Jewish vassal kings (end of Maccabean dynasty).
63 BCE - ~300 CE
Herod the Great rules Judea as vassal for the Romans.
37 BCE - 4 BCE
Judea becomes Roman province.
Herod Agrippa rules for the Romans.
37 CE - 44 CE
Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria; Philo goes to Rome.
38 CE - 41 CE
Agrippa II rules northern Judea.
48 CE - 66 CE
Judeans expelled from Rome (?).
First Jewish Revolt. Josephus fights for the Judeans, then switches sides.
66 CE - 70 CE
Canonical gospels written.
70 CE - 135 CE
Second Jewish Revolt.
115 CE - 117 CE
Third Jewish Revolt (Bar Kokhba War). Jews expelled from Jerusalem. Judea is de-Judaized and re-named Palaestina.
132 CE - 135 CE
Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi finishes (or begins to finish) editing and compiling the Mishnah, a major work of rabbinic sages regarding the Oral Law.
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