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Judea/Palestine in Antiquity
Destruction of first, Solomonic Temple; Exile of local elite to Babylon.
539 BCE - 334 BCE
After Persian conquest of Babylon, Cyrus allows exiles to return.
Temple rebuilt in Jerusalem.
516 BCE - 515 BCE
334 BCE - 63 BCE
Alexander conquers Judea (and everything else!).
333 BCE - 331 BCE
Judea bounces back and forth between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. Hebrew Bible translated into Greek.
323 BCE - 168 BCE
The Seleucids take Palestine back from Egypt.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king of the Seleucids; factional fighting increases.
Maccabean revolt, culminating in the rededication of the Temple (Festival of Hannukah).
168 BCE - 164 BCE
Profanation of the Temple by Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
164 BCE - 63 BCE
63 BCE - Approx. 300 CE
Romans conquer Jerusalem. Under Pompey, Rome takes over and installs Jewish vassal kings (end of Maccabean dynasty).
Herod the Great rules Judea as vassal for the Romans.
37 BCE - 4 BCE
Judea becomes Roman province.
Approx. 33 CE
Herod Agrippa rules for the Romans.
37 CE - 44 CE
Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria; Philo goes to Rome.
38 CE - 41 CE
Agrippa II rules northern Judea.
48 CE - 66 CE
Judeans expelled from Rome (?).
First Jewish Revolt. Josephus fights for the Judeans, then switches sides.
66 CE - 70 CE
Canonical gospels written.
70 CE - 135 CE
Second Jewish Revolt.
115 CE - 117 CE
Third Jewish Revolt (Bar Kokhba War). Jews expelled from Jerusalem. Judea is de-Judaized and re-named Palaestina.
132 CE - 135 CE
Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi finishes (or begins to finish) editing and compiling the Mishnah, a major work of rabbinic sages regarding the Oral Law.
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