Judea/Palestine in Antiquity


Destruction of first, Solomonic Temple; Exile of local elite to Babylon.

586 BCE


539 BCE - 334 BCE

After Persian conquest of Babylon, Cyrus allows exiles to return.

538 BCE

Temple rebuilt in Jerusalem.

516 BCE - 515 BCE


334 BCE - 63 BCE

Alexander conquers Judea (and everything else!).

333 BCE - 331 BCE

Alexander dies.

323 BCE

Judea bounces back and forth between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. Hebrew Bible translated into Greek.

323 BCE - 168 BCE

The Seleucids take Palestine back from Egypt.

198 BCE

Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king of the Seleucids; factional fighting increases.

175 BCE

Maccabean revolt, culminating in the rededication of the Temple (Festival of Hannukah).

168 BCE - 164 BCE

Profanation of the Temple by Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

167 BCE

Maccabean Quasi-Autonomy

164 BCE - 63 BCE

Romans conquer Jerusalem. Under Pompey, Rome takes over and installs Jewish vassal kings (end of Maccabean dynasty).

63 BCE


63 BCE - Approx. 300 CE

Herod the Great rules Judea as vassal for the Romans.

37 BCE - 4 BCE

Judea becomes Roman province.

6 CE

Jesus dies.

Approx. 33 CE

Herod Agrippa rules for the Romans.

37 CE - 44 CE

Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria; Philo goes to Rome.

38 CE - 41 CE

Agrippa II rules northern Judea.

48 CE - 66 CE

Judeans expelled from Rome (?).

49 CE

First Jewish Revolt. Josephus fights for the Judeans, then switches sides.

66 CE - 70 CE

Canonical gospels written.

70 CE - 135 CE

Temple destroyed.

70 CE

Second Jewish Revolt.

115 CE - 117 CE

Third Jewish Revolt (Bar Kokhba War). Jews expelled from Jerusalem. Judea is de-Judaized and re-named Palaestina.

132 CE - 135 CE

Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi finishes (or begins to finish) editing and compiling the Mishnah, a major work of rabbinic sages regarding the Oral Law.

189 CE