appointed brigadier general in French army for his role in recovering Toulon from British in 1793
Defense of New Regime during Thermidorian Reaction won him command in Italy
guarantees continued fighting with France and Austria
crushes Austrian and Sardinia armies
Danger to directory came from royalists-- hoped to restore Bourbon Monarchy
Emigres had returned to France-- plans for restoration drew support from devout Catholics and those opposed/disgusted by excess of the Revolution
MONARCHY PROMISED STABILITY
1797 election-- gave constitutional monarchists they majority
To preserve to republic and prevent restoration of the Bourbons, antimonarchist Directory staged a coup d'etat and put their own supporters into the legislative seats won by their opponents.
THEN imposed censorship and exiled enemies
At request of Directors-- Napoleon (general in charge of Italian campaign) sent one of his subordinates to Paris to guarantee the success of the coup.
Saved the day for directory.
took Austria out of war and crowned Napoleon's campaign a success.
soon-- France dominated all of Italy and Switzerland
Invades Egypt and hopes to take it from Ottoman Empire and gain access to Britain.
Overran Egypt but French fleet was destroyed and French army was cut off.
Economic/International troubles threatened directory support.
Abbe Sieyes proposed new constitution-- wanted an executive body independent of the whims or electoral politics.
government based on confidence from beow and power from above
Change would require another coup with military support.
Napoleon left Egypt without warning and joined Sieyes.
CONSTITUTION: UMS, democratic principles, complicated system of checks and balances that appeals to republican theory, and Council of state that evoked memories of Louis XIV.
Rule of one man-- Bonaparte.
Ended the revolution in France. Third estate had essentially reached its goals== abolished hereditary privilege and careers opened to skill and allowed them to achieve wealth, status, and security of property.
Peasants got land and destroyed oppressions of feudalism.
People were pleased and didn't want to share with lower social orders. Plebiscite loved Napoleon's constitution!!
In Italy and Switzerland-- threaten to invade France.
Russia got wind of invasion and joined with Austria, Ottomans, and Britain to form Second Coalition.
Napoleon got what he wanted-- refractory clergy had to resign, as well as those who had accepted the Revolution. State named bishops and paid their salaries, so the church had to give up claims on its confiscated property.
Concordat declared "Catholicism is the religion of the great majority of French citizens"
MERELY A STATEMENT-- not religious dominance Pope wanted. Est. supremacy of STATE OVER CHURCH. Clergy had to swear an oath of loyalty to state.
victory over Austria in 1800, and Treaty of Luneville takes them out of war in 1801
Russia leaves SC
PEACE TO EUROPE
Napoleon eases public mind by making peace w/ other countries
Civil Code-- safeguarded property and tried to secure French society against internal challenges.
Privileges based on birth that had been overthrown during the Revolution remained abolished, employment of salaried officials on basis of merit instead of purchase of offices.
CONSERVATIVE VIEWS OF WOMEN AND LABOR that had emerged in Revolution remained.
Primogeniture remained abolished
UNIVERSALITY OF NAPOLEONIC CODE ENDED THE CONFUSED SET OF LAWS in France