Napoleon and Romanticism (CH. 20)


Napoleon's Rise to Power


Fierce Jacobin
appointed brigadier general in French army for his role in recovering Toulon from British in 1793
Defense of New Regime during Thermidorian Reaction won him command in Italy

France Annexation of Belgium


guarantees continued fighting with France and Austria
crushes Austrian and Sardinia armies

Danger to directory


Danger to directory came from royalists-- hoped to restore Bourbon Monarchy
Emigres had returned to France-- plans for restoration drew support from devout Catholics and those opposed/disgusted by excess of the Revolution
1797 election-- gave constitutional monarchists they majority

To preserve to republic and prevent restoration of the Bourbons, antimonarchist Directory staged a coup d'etat and put their own supporters into the legislative seats won by their opponents.
THEN imposed censorship and exiled enemies
At request of Directors-- Napoleon (general in charge of Italian campaign) sent one of his subordinates to Paris to guarantee the success of the coup.
Saved the day for directory.

Treaty of Campo Formio

October, 1797

took Austria out of war and crowned Napoleon's campaign a success.
soon-- France dominated all of Italy and Switzerland

Napoleon Invades Egypt

1798 - 1799

Invades Egypt and hopes to take it from Ottoman Empire and gain access to Britain.
Overran Egypt but French fleet was destroyed and French army was cut off.

Constitution of the Year VIII


Economic/International troubles threatened directory support.
Abbe Sieyes proposed new constitution-- wanted an executive body independent of the whims or electoral politics.
government based on confidence from beow and power from above
Change would require another coup with military support.
Napoleon left Egypt without warning and joined Sieyes.

CONSTITUTION: UMS, democratic principles, complicated system of checks and balances that appeals to republican theory, and Council of state that evoked memories of Louis XIV.
Rule of one man-- Bonaparte.

Consulate in France

1799 - 1804

Ended the revolution in France. Third estate had essentially reached its goals== abolished hereditary privilege and careers opened to skill and allowed them to achieve wealth, status, and security of property.
Peasants got land and destroyed oppressions of feudalism.
People were pleased and didn't want to share with lower social orders. Plebiscite loved Napoleon's constitution!!

Russia and Austria defeat France


In Italy and Switzerland-- threaten to invade France.

Formation of Second Coalition


Russia got wind of invasion and joined with Austria, Ottomans, and Britain to form Second Coalition.

Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church


Napoleon got what he wanted-- refractory clergy had to resign, as well as those who had accepted the Revolution. State named bishops and paid their salaries, so the church had to give up claims on its confiscated property.
Concordat declared "Catholicism is the religion of the great majority of French citizens"
MERELY A STATEMENT-- not religious dominance Pope wanted. Est. supremacy of STATE OVER CHURCH. Clergy had to swear an oath of loyalty to state.

Treaty of Amiens


victory over Austria in 1800, and Treaty of Luneville takes them out of war in 1801
Russia leaves SC
Napoleon eases public mind by making peace w/ other countries

Napoleon becomes Consul for Life


Napoleonic Code


Civil Code-- safeguarded property and tried to secure French society against internal challenges.
Privileges based on birth that had been overthrown during the Revolution remained abolished, employment of salaried officials on basis of merit instead of purchase of offices.
CONSERVATIVE VIEWS OF WOMEN AND LABOR that had emerged in Revolution remained.
Primogeniture remained abolished