His ideas and philosophy of humanism sparked the Renaissance
People grew richer due to the deaths, and therefore, were able to be patrons.
caused the church and clergy to stray away from the people and focus on internal issues within the church instead of helping citizens during the plague.
-importance: led to the rise of Protestantism and people abandoning the Catholic Church.
(1378-1416) the split between the church. When 3 peoples were fighting
-led to more followers of Protestantism
Printing Press invented by Guttenberg
The printing press allowed for news to be spread faster and it also increased knowledge by the printing of older books such as the bible for people to read.
Portuguese Causes: desire for military glory, Christianize Muslims, find Prester John (a mythical Christian King of Africa), find gold, slaves and an overseas route to the spice markets of India
1450 - 1650
Leonardo da Vinci
Provided many realistic paintings and was a philosopher!
End of Hundred Years War
Between England and France over who was the rightful king of France.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Henry supported the study of geography and navigation, sponsoring the annual expeditions down the western coast of Africia.
Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
The significance of this marriage is that it unified Spain.
created the Church of England after being denied a divorce from the Catholic church
-created even more religious division and tension
Ignatius of Loyola
-founded the Jesuits
-Assisted with the Catholic church during the counter Catholic reformation because his religion had impacted so many and caused them to convert
Columbus lands in America
(Holy Roman Empire): summoned the council of Trent to condemn the doctrines of Protestantism and clarify the intentions of Catholicism as well as to stand as a disciplinary and administrative center.
1500 - 1800
A Painting and Engraver, Dürer was a talented artist and communicated with many well known artists.
-Creator of Calvinism
-Called the Huguenots
-Was not accepted by the peace of Augsburg which caused religious division among the Holy Roman Empire
(1533-1603): the last Tudor monarch. Required conformity to the Church of England. Decreased religious tolerance.
1543 - 1687
Council of Trent
Ended in 1563
-one of the most important ecumenical councils
-increased Catholic Church reform after the rise of Protestantism
-caused the counter Catholic reformation
-the Catholic church realized they needed to change to get more converts
Peace of Augsburg
-Temporary settlement in the HRE
-Each prince was able to decide which religion they wanted their people to follow in their area of rule
-Caused religious division and issues
-Decreased power of the King because the princes decided
He formalized the empirical method (or empiricism). He used the inductive method for scientific experimentation.
-Changed the way of writing forever
-He created the writing for entertainment purposes instead of strictly political
Developed laws of motion.
Validated Copernicus's heliocentric view with the aid of a telescope
Created many famous sculptures, including David.
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre
-a Catholic mob of violence
-directed against the Huguenots
-Catherine de Medici summoned it to get rid of Huguenot leaders
Saint Bartholomew's Day Masssacre
August 22, 1572
Occurred when Henry of Navarre came to Paris for a wedding; massacre of Huguenots. Led to Edict of Nantes
Heliocentric view: argued that the earth revolved around the sun. The sun was the center of the universe.
1589 - 1750
Shakespeare's works encompassed and expressed the changing attitudes towards race and religion as a result of exploration
Discourse on method advocated the use of deductive reasoning
Edict of Nantes
-put a temporary end to all religious wars between Catholics and Protestants
-Huguenots were now accepted in Europe and were safer than when the Catholics were persecuting them
Edict of Nantes
April 12, 1598
Establishes religious toleration in France; Huguenots gain freedom of worshipping in houses
Cardinal Richelieu and his son dominated the religious territory, ending the Peace of Westphalia
He claimed divine right and wanted to have absolute authority over the parliament and England which lead to parliament being dissolved.
Charles agreed to the demands from parliament which allowed parliament to not be dissolved without its consent and many other things.
Practiced the principle of universal gravitation. This was detailed in mathematical principles of natural philosophy, also known as principa
English Civil War
It brought an end to the reign of Charles 1. The war centered around religious disputes, mixed with constitutional issues concerning the power of the monarch. The war ended with the beheading of Charles the 1.
English Civil War
Fought between Royalists and Puritans; lasted for 7 years
Reign of Louie XIV
"I am the state" strongest King France ever had, the Sun King. Created Versailles.
Signing of Peace of Westphalia
December 31, 1647
Weakened Hapsburg state as well as ending the 30 years war
Peace of Westphalia
-brought an end to many religious wars
-added Calvinism into the peace of Augsburg as one of the religions the princes were able to choose
-provided foundation of modern state system
-articulated concept of territorial sovereignty
-advanced the time along with ending wars
1650 - 1800
Reign of Oliver Cromwell
He was a military dictator and promoted religious tolerance.
He was the finance minister for France from 1665-1683. He came up with the idea of mercantilism in 1665.
Reign of Peter the Great
Traveled to western society in order to westernize Russia with all the ideas he had gathered
He wanted to change England back to Catholicism which led to many Catholics to be appointed into high positions.
King James II overthrown and Mary and William take over English Throne
James II was not a popular monarch, and was replaced by Mary and William. It increased the power of parliament over the monarchy.
English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights created a separation of powers, and limited the Monarchs power.
He was an English philosopher and he wrote the social contract that inspired many of the ideas in the Declaration of Independence.
English Bill of Rights
Became constitutional monarchy; freedom of speech, parliament gains power and King loses some power
Invention of the steam engine
It was used in the steam locomotive for quicker transportation
It enclosed cOmmon lands and sold them for profit
He promoted the adoption of the four course system, involving rotations of crops in England. Also known as “Turnip Townshend” because of his role in the British Agricultural Revolution.
King Louis XVI
He was the French King during the French Revolution that completely changed the French government
Radical rebbelious leader that ruled during the Reign of Terror. He wanted his people to treat him like a god and killed all who opposed him.
A revolution that happened in the colonies and led to France going into debt after helping the colonists.
The period of rebellion in France that led to the end of monarchy.
Tennis Court Oath
June 20 1789
This was when the people of France were determined to create a constitution and was the beginning of the rebellion.
1792-1795 The jacobins were radical revolutionaries that ruled France for a period of time.
Reign of terror
This was a period of radicalism where people were killed for having beliefs that were not like theres.
Invention of the cotton gin
It was a machine that quickly separated cotton fibers from their seeds
Was the emperor of France and almost conquered Europe. He made major reforms and ended the French Monarchy.