AP Euro First Semester: Period 6

Events

Renaissance

1300 - 1550

Petrarch

1304

His ideas and philosophy of humanism sparked the Renaissance

Black Death

1348

caused the church and clergy to stray away from the people and focus on internal issues within the church instead of helping citizens during the plague.
-importance: led to the rise of Protestantism and people abandoning the Catholic Church.

Black Death

1348

People grew richer due to the deaths, and therefore, were able to be patrons.

Great Schism

1378

(1378-1416) the split between the church. When 3 peoples were fighting
-led to more followers of Protestantism

Printing Press invented by Guttenberg

1439


The printing press allowed for news to be spread faster and it also increased knowledge by the printing of older books such as the bible for people to read.

Exploration Background

1450

Portuguese Causes: desire for military glory, Christianize Muslims, find Prester John (a mythical Christian King of Africa), find gold, slaves and an overseas route to the spice markets of India

Exploration

1450 - 1650

Leonardo da Vinci

1452

Provided many realistic paintings and was a philosopher!

End of Hundred Years War

1453


Between England and France over who was the rightful king of France.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1480

Henry supported the study of geography and navigation, sponsoring the annual expeditions down the western coast of Africia.

Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

1490

The significance of this marriage is that it unified Spain.

Ignatius of Loyola

1491

-founded the Jesuits
-Assisted with the Catholic church during the counter Catholic reformation because his religion had impacted so many and caused them to convert

Henry VIII

1491

created the Church of England after being denied a divorce from the Catholic church
-created even more religious division and tension

Columbus lands in America

1492

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1800

Charles V

1500

(Holy Roman Empire): summoned the council of Trent to condemn the doctrines of Protestantism and clarify the intentions of Catholicism as well as to stand as a disciplinary and administrative center.

Albrecht Durer

1500

A Painting and Engraver, Dürer was a talented artist and communicated with many well known artists.

Erasmus

1511

He wrote The Praise of Folly

Reformation

1517 - 1648

Martin Luther's 95 Theses

1517

John Calvin

1519

-Creator of Calvinism
-Called the Huguenots
-Was not accepted by the peace of Augsburg which caused religious division among the Holy Roman Empire

Elizabeth I

1533

(1533-1603): the last Tudor monarch. Required conformity to the Church of England. Decreased religious tolerance.

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1687

Council of Trent

1545

Ended in 1563
-one of the most important ecumenical councils
-increased Catholic Church reform after the rise of Protestantism
-caused the counter Catholic reformation
-the Catholic church realized they needed to change to get more converts

Peace of Augsburg

1555

-Temporary settlement in the HRE
-Each prince was able to decide which religion they wanted their people to follow in their area of rule
-Caused religious division and issues
-Decreased power of the King because the princes decided

Bacon

1561

He formalized the empirical method (or empiricism). He used the inductive method for scientific experimentation.

Shakespeare

1564

-Changed the way of writing forever
-He created the writing for entertainment purposes instead of strictly political

Michelangelo

1564

Created many famous sculptures, including David.

Galileo

1564

Developed laws of motion.
Validated Copernicus's heliocentric view with the aid of a telescope

St. Bartholomew Day Massacre

1572

-a Catholic mob of violence
-directed against the Huguenots
-Catherine de Medici summoned it to get rid of Huguenot leaders

Saint Bartholomew's Day Masssacre

August 22, 1572

Occurred when Henry of Navarre came to Paris for a wedding; massacre of Huguenots. Led to Edict of Nantes

Copernicus

1573

Heliocentric view: argued that the earth revolved around the sun. The sun was the center of the universe.

Absolutism

1589 - 1750

Shakespeare

1594

Shakespeare's works encompassed and expressed the changing attitudes towards race and religion as a result of exploration

Descartes

1596

Discourse on method advocated the use of deductive reasoning

Edict of Nantes

1598

-put a temporary end to all religious wars between Catholics and Protestants
-Huguenots were now accepted in Europe and were safer than when the Catholics were persecuting them

Edict of Nantes

April 12, 1598

Establishes religious toleration in France; Huguenots gain freedom of worshipping in houses

Constitutionalism

1600 - 1725

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1750

Dutch East India Company

1602

A joint-stock company chartered by the States-General of the Netherlands to expand trade and promote relations between the Dutch government and its colonial ventures. It established a colony at the Cape of Good Hope, and in the 1630s it paid a return of 35% on investments. https://people.hofstra.edu/GEOTRANS/eng/gallery/Map_VOC_Trade_Network.pdf

Thirty Years War

August 14, 1618

Cardinal Richelieu and his son dominated the religious territory, ending the Peace of Westphalia

Charles I

1625

He claimed divine right and wanted to have absolute authority over the parliament and England which lead to parliament being dissolved.

Long Parliament

1640

Charles agreed to the demands from parliament which allowed parliament to not be dissolved without its consent and many other things.

English Civil War

1642

Fought between Royalists and Puritans; lasted for 7 years

English Civil War

1642

It brought an end to the reign of Charles 1. The war centered around religious disputes, mixed with constitutional issues concerning the power of the monarch. The war ended with the beheading of Charles the 1.

Newton

1642

Practiced the principle of universal gravitation. This was detailed in mathematical principles of natural philosophy, also known as principa

Reign of Louie XIV

1643

"I am the state" strongest King France ever had, the Sun King. Created Versailles.

Signing of Peace of Westphalia

December 31, 1647

Weakened Hapsburg state as well as ending the 30 years war

Peace of Westphalia

1648

-brought an end to many religious wars
-added Calvinism into the peace of Augsburg as one of the religions the princes were able to choose
-provided foundation of modern state system
-articulated concept of territorial sovereignty
-advanced the time along with ending wars

Enlightenment

1650 - 1800

Reign of Oliver Cromwell

1653

He was a military dictator and promoted religious tolerance.

Colbert

1665

He was the finance minister for France from 1665-1683. He came up with the idea of mercantilism in 1665.

Reign of Peter the Great

1682

Traveled to western society in order to westernize Russia with all the ideas he had gathered

James II

1685

He wanted to change England back to Catholicism which led to many Catholics to be appointed into high positions.

Glorious Revolution

1687

King James II overthrown and Mary and William take over English Throne

Glorious Revolution

1688

James II was not a popular monarch, and was replaced by Mary and William. It increased the power of parliament over the monarchy.

English Bill of Rights

1689

Became constitutional monarchy; freedom of speech, parliament gains power and King loses some power

John Locke

1689

He was an English philosopher and he wrote the social contract that inspired many of the ideas in the Declaration of Independence.

English Bill of Rights

1689

The English Bill of Rights created a separation of powers, and limited the Monarchs power.

Invention of the steam engine

1698

It was used in the steam locomotive for quicker transportation

Enclosure movement

1720

It enclosed cOmmon lands and sold them for profit

Charles Townsend

1730

He promoted the adoption of the four course system, involving rotations of crops in England. Also known as “Turnip Townshend” because of his role in the British Agricultural Revolution.

King Louis XVI

1754

He was the French King during the French Revolution that completely changed the French government

Robespierre

1758

Radical rebbelious leader that ruled during the Reign of Terror. He wanted his people to treat him like a god and killed all who opposed him.

American Revolution

1775

A revolution that happened in the colonies and led to France going into debt after helping the colonists.

French Revolution

1789

The period of rebellion in France that led to the end of monarchy.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20 1789

This was when the people of France were determined to create a constitution and was the beginning of the rebellion.

Jacobins

1792

1792-1795 The jacobins were radical revolutionaries that ruled France for a period of time.

Invention of the cotton gin

1793

It was a machine that quickly separated cotton fibers from their seeds

Reign of terror

1793

This was a period of radicalism where people were killed for having beliefs that were not like theres.

Napoleon Bonaparte

1799

Was the emperor of France and almost conquered Europe. He made major reforms and ended the French Monarchy.