The "father" of humanism, first to use critical textual analysis to ancient texts.
It badly damaged papal prestige. The leadership of the church was cut off from its roots in Rome.
The bubonic plague: carried by fleas on Asian black rats and brought to Europe on ships returning from Asia
Loss of 1/3 of European population (mostly in cities)
Impact on the peasantry- Serfdom ended in many areas in western Europe. Peasant revolts in England and France increased (had originally been in response to taxation during the Hundred Years’ War)
Population did not reach pre-plague level until the mid-16th century.
Emperor of Holy Roman Empire. Sought to stop Protestantism and preserve Catholicism.
It divided western Christianity until 1417. European powers split depending on political allegiance to the two popes. One in Rome and one in France.
o The primary motives behind the exploration movement
o The Renaissance impacted this period because I forced men to search for knowledge o People wanted to evangelize, gain a title and reputation for themselves, and earn a
Financed numerous expeditions along the West African coastline in hopes of finding
The printing press allowed for news to be spread faster and it also increased knowledge by the printing of older books such as the bible for people to read.
-The printing press is easily one of the most important inventions in human history
-Gutenberg’s development of movable type made possible the spread of humanistic literature to rest of Europe with astonishing speed
-The printing press also led to a direct increase in the literacy of Europe at the time since books were more accessible to the general public
1450-1640 in England landowners sought to increase profits by enclosing fields. The movement put an end to open field system and many peasants had to move to towns to find work.
o Goal: nations sought a self-sufficient economy
o Strategy: create a favorable balance of trade where one’s country exported far more
than it imported
o Revival in populationincreased Demands
o Social and religious demands were set in place
o Religious fervor was another important catalyst for expansion
o New technology
o Combined with eagerness for profits and to spread Christianity was the desire for glory
and the urge to chart new waters.
The fall of Constantinople and subsequent Ottoman control of trade routes created obstacles to fulfilling increasing demands.
Between England and France over who was the rightful king of France.
- Reached the Bahamas in 1492 and believed that he landed in India
- Monumental significance of Columbus' expedition was that it ushered in an era of European exploration and domination of the New World
- Spanish government sought to reduce the savage exploitation of Amerindians in the
- Amerindians worked for an owner for certain number of days per week but retained
other parcels of land to work themselves.
o Spain’s ability to forcible utilize Amerindian labor was a major reason why the Spanish
Empire imported few slaved from Africa
The agreement that gave Spain everything to the west of an imaginary line drawn down
the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the East.
Both European and the New World were transformed as a result of the Age of
Exploration and the exchanged that occurred between the two regions
o For Europeans, the exchange led to a healthier diet and increase in the availability of
o For the Amerindians, the Columbian Exchange brought disease that killed off the
majority of the population o Diet
- The potato became the staple crop
- Other important foodstuff was also grown and exported
- Plants were also exchanged
- Cows, chickens, pigs, goats, and sheep were all brought to the New World
Europeans introduced the horses to the Natives.
Seen as the First Humanist. Wrote The Praise of Folly which was a satire of worldly wisdom and also critiqued the church. Criticized the immorality and hypocrisy of the church.
Italian artist, architect, poet, and engineer during the High Renaissance, commission to paint the Sistine Chapel.
Wrote The Prince in vernacular and is seen as to be one of the first works of modern political philosophy.
Best known political theorists of his time. Studied classical history in order to get a more realistic Portia's of politics
He was a painter, military engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist, and inventor. His most famous is the Mona Lisa. Known as an ideal renaissance man.
The best-known triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade, that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries, carrying slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods between West Africa, Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers
Phillip II reigned from May 21, 1527 until September 13, 1598. He inherited Spain, spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies. He was shy, hard working, and worked alone. In 1580, he inherited Portugal, which had strongholds in Africa, India, and the East Indies. By 1600 the New World supplied Phillips empire with lots of gold and silver. During his reign he defended catholicism against protestants and muslims. In 1588 he launched the spanish armada, but the massive fleet failed.
Assassinations and Catholic mob violence against Huguenots that occurred during the French Wars of Religion.
Seen as one of the most important figures in the Northern Renaissance. He was an artist to master Italian Renaissance techniques and styles, known for his woodcut prints.
He ended authority of pope in England by breaking away and creating the Anglican Church (Church of England)
Ignatius formed the Jesuits. This society helped counter the works and ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin. The Jesuits helped the Catholic Counter-Reformation movement.
Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543. It positioned the Sun near the center of the Universe, motionless, with Earth and the other planets rotating around it in circular paths modified by epicycles and at uniform speeds.
The Council of Trent was one of the most important ecumenical councils of the Catholic Church during the Counter Reformation.
It temporarily settled Reformation-caused religious conflicts in the Holy Roman Empire.
She had the longest reign of any monarch of that time. And they defeated the Spanish Armada during her reign
Bacon took up Aristotelian ideas, arguing for an empirical, inductive approach, known as the scientific method, which is the foundation of modern scientific inquiry.
He was a mathematic pioneer who created the first telescope, supported the Copernican theory, and was accused of heresy by the Catholic Church twice. He was put under house arrest after writing about planetary motion and was later forced to rescind his ideas.
René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings. Wrote Discourse on Method which advocated the use of deductive reasoning.
Granted religious freedom to Huguenots and ended major wars of religion.
o Farmers would rotate their crops in the field in order to preserve the fertility of the soil
- The agricultural productivity was very low in Europe during the Middle Ages
- They had unproductive farming techniques and often faced hunger and famine as a result
o Features of the Revolution:
- Increased production of food
- New methods of cultivation
- Selective breeding of livestock
Open field system:
o Common lands were open and strips of land for agriculture were not divided by fences or hedges
Impact of the Agricultural Revolution:
o Led to Europe’s population explosion in the 18th century
o The Enclosure Movement altered society in the countryside
- Widespread migration into the cities
o The cottage industry emerged as a means of supplementing a farm family’s income
o Economically, the increased supply of foods resulted in lower food prices that enables people to spend more money on consumer goods
•The price revolution refers most specifically to the high rate of inflation that occurred during this period across Western Europe.
•The major source of inflation came from the continuous flow of precious metals from the Americas
•As a result of inflation, food prices increased and population growth slowed
His works revealed the impact of new discoveries and explore a variety of human problems. His works can also be interpreted in various ways.
These monarchs ruled England for most of the 17th century. Although they exhibited absolutist tendencies, they were restrained by the growth of Parliament. This dynasty comprised of James I, followed by Charles I, then Charles II, and lastly James II. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/Coat_of_Arms_of_Great_Britain_%281707-1714%29.svg
Because Elizabeth I left no heir to the throne when she died, James VI of Scotland was next in line to assume the throne. He was a firm believer in his own divine right and absolutism. He dissolved Parliament twice.
It involved the major European powers and resulted in the Peace of Westphalia.
He was the son of James I and quickly was pitted against Parliament because of tax issues. Parliament attempted to pass the Petition of Right, but Charles soon dissolved them. After ruling without Parliament, Charles called the Short Parliament which refused to grant him his new taxes. At the Long Parliament Charles agreed to certain demands.
o Landowners sought to increase profits from wool production by enclosing fields for raising sheep
o The enclosure movement put an end to the open field system which resulted in the commercialization of agriculture
o This movement had a major impact on the peasantry. Many moved to town or cities looking for work since work was less available in the countryside
o For women, the movement meant that they were forced off the land. Economic opportunities for women this decreased significantly
Charles declared war against his opponents in Parliament after he attempted to arrest some Puritan members. The Cavaliers supported the king and the Roundheads opposed the king.
Was the quintessential absolute monarch. Louis XIV was the strongest king France has ever had and stated "I Am the State", further proving his power. Known as the "Sun King" strong believer in divine right of kings.
Ended the Thirty Years War
Nobles revolted against Mazarin when Louis when between the ages of 5 - 11. Resulted from Mazarin's attempts to increase royal revenues. These revolts left France in need of peace and strong monarchical rule, and paved the way for Louis XIV's reign. Louis, humiliated by having to flee, was determined to avoid any further rebellion.
He led the Roundheads to victory during the English Civil War. After the Interregnum, a period of rule without a king, he was proclaimed lord protector. He conquered Ireland and Scotland while ruling England like a dictatorship.
Because of the enclosure movement and an increase of food availability leading to lower prices, many peasants were force to look for work in urban areas.
Built Versailles at value of 2.5 Billion dollars (2003 value)
-Invades Spanish Netherlands and gained 12 towns (1667)
-Invades Dutch Netherlands (1672)
-Causes other European countries to form alliance due to fear of being conquered
John Locke was a famed philosopher during the time of the enlightenment. He was most known as the father of liberalism. He was important because he developed society based on his ideas of a Social Contract.
A Cavalier Parliament restored him to the throne after Oliver Cromwell's death. Parliament was stronger in relation to the king than ever before. When he repeatedly supported the Catholic faith, the Whig Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Act to limit his power.
Contacts with Western Europe in order to learn from greater civilizations which led to Westernization of Russia. He introduced potatoes, which became a Russian diet staple, started Russia's first newspaper, raised the status of women, ordered nobles to wear Western fashions and advanced education by opening schools.
Parliament invited Mary's husband, the Dutch stadholder William of Orange, to assume the throne. He and his wife were declared joint sovereigns by Parliament.
It was the final act in the struggle for political sovereignty in England. James II was forced to abdicate his throne.
William and Mary accepted England becoming a constitutional monarchy. It including numerous provisions including that laws could be made only with the consent of Parliament and a right to a trial. However, power remained largely in the hands of the nobility and gentry.
Invented the seed drill which allowed for crops to be grown in straight rows. Good example of how the empiricism of the scientific revolution was applied to agriculture.
Also known as "Putting-Out" System
Merchant-capitalists in cities were eager to use the cheap rural labor for profit. The production was put-out to the countryside where it was completed in cottages. It was essentially a family enterprise.
He promoted the adoption of the four course system, involving rotations of crops in England. Also known as "Turnip Townshend" because of his role in the British Agricultural Revolution.
A famous philosopher in the time of the Enlightnement. Most popular Jacobin and had important ideas that influenced the government. Wrote the social contract to set up a new political system where all people agreed on their individual roles in society
invented the flying shuttle which enabled the weaver to throw shuttle back and forth between threads with one hand
Frederick was son of king Frederick William, who worried his son was not manly enough to be king. Frederick proves father wrong and fights in War of Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War, bringing Prussia to victory both times. As a result of his incorporation of Enlightenment ideas, including those of Voltaire, Frederick the Great was able to institute a number of reforms and increase Prussia's territory at the expense of the Russian Habsburgs.
wrote Spirit of the Laws which called for separation of powers in government into three branches. Goal was a system of checks and balances would ensure that no single branch of government became too powerful.
Main goal: economic self-sufficiency. A country sought to create a favorable balance of trade by exporting more than is imported.
increased supply of food resulted in lower food prices
pioneered selective breeding of livestock, resulted in increased availability of meat, wool, leather, soap and candle tallow.
1754-1763 began in the disputed Ohio Valley of North America when a young George Washington engaged a French force protecting Fort Duquesne. Led to British Royal Navy taking on France's Navy on the high seas.
Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war, France was completely removed from North America, France had to accept British domination in India and Spain ceded Florida to Britain in return for Cuba and the Philippines.
A sarcastic author during the time of the Enlightenment that criticized the work of multiple authors. Important for his writings and his advocacy of the idea of the separation of church and state.
invented the spinning jenny which mechanized the spinning wheel
invented the water frame, which improved thread spinning. He used a steam engine to power the looms which required factories to produce textiles. Considered the beginning of the industrial revolution.
Napoleon was a military genius, inspired a divided country to unify at the price of individual freedom ending the French Revolution. Brought significant civil reforms to France as a whole known as the Napoleonic Code.
First orphanages appeared in Paris and then spread throughout Europe. 1/3 of all babies born in Paris were immediately abandoned to the foundling home; 1/3 of those came from married couples. Half of all these babies died within one year.
Committed to fundamental reform in society. Popularized the Enlightenment and believed in progress through discovering the natural laws governing nature and human existence.
Also known as the American War for Independence. For eight years the colonies in America battled the power in England for separation. America won. This was important because it changed England and ruined economies due to war debts. It changed the mindset of colonies around the world as well as starting revolutions around the world.
Wrote Wealth of Nations- considered the "Bible" of capitalism.
Economy is governed by the natural laws of supply and demand.
Created the foundation for the science of immunology with his vaccine for smallpox.
They were one of the most radical political groups during the time of the French Revolution, and they were good friends with Robespierre.
The Tennis Court Oath was a pledge signed by most of the third estate, when they were locked out of the meeting at the Estates general.
King of France from 1774- 1792. Attempted to reform France to enlightenment ideals but failed in mutiple ways. Crumbled under the debt soaked economy.
It was an agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII, to establish the Roman Catholic Church as the main religion in France.
The battle of Trafalgar, fought by the combined French and Spanish fleet against a British fleet, halted Napoleon's plan to take over England.
A blockade imposed by Napoleon to halt all trade between continental Europe and and Britain, thereby weakening the British economy and military.
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The purpose was to set up a peace through out Europe after the French Revolution.
Louis XVIII and his allies responded to Napoleon taking the throne resulting in a vicious battle at Waterloo where Napoleon was crushed. Important because Napoleon was crushed and Louis XVI was back on the throne.