Unit 5: Changes: Labor Movement Clark (ML JT Ella)

Chronology of the Labor Movement Margaux, Jane, Ella

Events

Working class at this time

Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1910

People in the working class worked in very poor conditions and hardly got paid anything for it. Men, Women, and children worked in the factories and they were treated like machinery.

Knights of Labor Union Formed

1869

Started by Terence Powderly to abolish child labor and get equal pay for men and women. Workers of all kinds joined, mainly minorities like women and African Americans.

Collapse of National Labor Federation

1872

Many unions joined together at a national level but poor leadership led to its collapse.

Economic Depression

1872

This Economic Depression made it difficult for unions to form because the competition for jobs increased. During this time, businesses undermined unions and made workers sign pledges so they wouldn't sign unions. These were called "yellow-dog contracts."

Railroad Strike

1877

The railroad companies were slashing wages of the workers and this cause the workers to get mad. Rail workers went on strike and had shut down at least half the nation's rail lines. The president finally called in the army and they had to get the trains rolling again. This was the first time the army was called to a riot.

American Federation of Labor

1886

Union started by Samuel Gompers to increase wages and improve working conditions. Only skilled workers in a particular trade could join.

Haymarket Affair

1886

strikers fought with “scabs” because nonunion workers were brought in to replace the strikers. One day the anarchists called a meeting and the police stormed it. Someone threw a bomb and killed people. This divided and confused the labor movement

Homestead Strike

1892

In order to keep the carnegie steel plant safe 300 private guards were hired. On their first day going in they were attacked by strikers. after a long gun battle the guards gave up and the state had to call the militia. the union was shut out for the next 4 decades.

Pullman Strike

1894

The Pullman company cut the wages they were giving their workers so the workers went on strike and American Railroad company stood with them. But because of that mail wasn’t getting places and that was a federal offence so the president called in the troops.

Industrial Workers of the World

1905

Started by William Haywood, Eugene V. Debs, and Daniel De Leon to organize all the unions and overthrow capitalism. The members were mostly lumbermen, miners, textile workers, and dockworkers.

Labor Action "Uprising of 20,000"

Approx. 1909 - 1909

Many women walked out of there jobs and demanded high wages and better working condition.Though it did fail this set the stage of the labor movements to come.

Triangle Shirtwaist factor caught fire

1911 - Approx. 1911

The factory caught fire and because many of the doors were locked many women die. One-hundred and forty-six women. After this Schneiderman gave a speech and became one of the key figures in the American Labor Movement.