19th Century Mathematicians

Personal Life

Bastille Stormed

July 14 1789

Augustin Louis Cauchy

21 August 1789 - 23 May 1857

France

Napoleon comes to Power

1804

Johann Peter Gustay Lejeune Dirichlet

13 Feb 1805 - 5 May 1859

Germany

Evariste Galois

25 October 1811 - 31 May 1832

France

Cauchy Falls in Deep Depression

1812

Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass

31 October 1815 - 19 Feb 1897

Germany

Georg Riemann

17 September 1826 - 20 July 1866

Germany

Weierstrauss' Mother Dies and Father Soon Remarries

1827

Weierstrauss Enters Catholic Gymnasium and Excells

1829

Galois' Father Commits Suicide

2 July 1829

Galois Arrested and Acquitted

May 1831

Galois Arrested Again

14 July 1831

Galois Injured in a Duel and Killed

31 May 1832

Weierstrass Begins Suffering From Illness

1850

Weierstrass' Health Gives Out

1861

Although he continues teaching, his health is an issue for the remainder of his life

Riemann Marries Elise Koch

June 1862

Riemann Contracts Tuberculosis

Sept 1862

Education

Cauchy Places Second in the Ecole Polytechnique Entrance Exam

1805

Cauchy Enters Engineering School at Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees

1807

Graduates from Ecole Polytechnique

1807

Dirichlet Enters Jesuit College in Cologne

1819

Dirichlet is taught by Ohm

Galois Enrolls at Lycée of Louis-le-Grand

6 Oct 1823

Galois Held Back

1826

Galois Begins Math Studies

1827

A turning point in his life

Galois Fails Exam of Ecole Polytrchnique

1828

Galois Fails Ecole Polytechnique Entrance Exam for the Second Time

1829

Galois Expelled and Joined National Guard

1830

Weierstrass Attends University of Bonn

1834

At father's insistence, studies law, finance and economics

Weierstrass Graduates from Catholic Gymnasium

1834

Weierstrauss Enrolls in the Academy in Munster

1839

Gudermann lectures him on elliptical functions

Riemann Enrolls at University of Gottingen

1846

Takes Courses from Moritz Stern and Gauss

Riemann Moves to Berlin University

1847

Studies under Steiner, Jacobi, Einsenstein, and most closely with Dirichlet

Teaching

Cauchy Begins Lecturing at the College de France

1817

Dirichlet Lectures at the College de France and Faculte des Sciences

Approx. 1822

Cauchy Passed Over for Teaching Position Due to Political Activity

1843

Weierstrass Accepts Professorship at University of Berlin

1856

Riemann Publishes Masterpiece Paper on Abelian Functions

1857

Riemann Appointed Professorship at Gottingen

1857

Weierstrass Lectures on Calculus

1859

His courses influence modern curriculum

Riemann Elected to Berlin Academy of Sciences

1859

Work and Publications

Cauchy Proves Angles of a Convex Polyhedron are Determined by its Faces

1811

Cauchy Submits Memoir on Symmetric Functions

Nov 1812

Cauchy Publishes Memoir on Definite Integrals

1814

This work became the basis of his theory of complex functions

Cauchy WIns Grand Prix of the french Academy of Sciences

1816

awarded the prize for his work on waves

Dirichlet Proves Part of Fermat's Last Theorem

Approx. 1823

Employed by General Foy

Galois Publishes First Paper on Continued Fractions

April 1829

Galois Published Articles on Algebraic Solutions to Equations in the Academie des Sciences

June 1829

Cauchy appointed referee to the papers

Galois Publishes Three Papers for Prize of the Academy

February 1830

never consider for the prize

Galois Published Two Minor Publications

Dec 1830

Liouville Reviewed Galois' Work

Sept 1843

A precise solution to the problems: given an irreducible equation of prime degree, decide whether or not it is soluble by radicals

Riemann Works Out General Theory of Complex Variables

1848

This formed the basis of his later, most significant work

Riemann Submits PhD on Complex Variables

1851

Supervised by Gauss, his theories are now called Riemann Surfaces, original but built on Cauchy and Dirichlet's work

Riemann Delivers Habilitation Lecture

1854

Defines Riemann Space, curvature tensor, real space

His work was 60 year ahead of his time, later used by Einstein's general theory of relativity

Weierstrass Publishes Theory of Inversion of Hyperelliptical Integrals

1856

Riemann Publishes Paper on Number of Primes

1859

Considered the zeta function as a complex function

Includes Riemann Hypothesis

Weierstrass discovers continuous non-differentiable function

1872

Riemann suggested its existance a decade earlier

Weierstrass Begins Publishing HIs Collective Work

1894

He would leter be regarded as father of modern anaylis: publishing on periodic functions, functions of real variables, elliptical functions, Albelien functions, converging infinite functions and calculus of variation.

Riemann's Use of the Dirichlet is Made Rigorous by Hilbert

1901