Test Napoleon + LA Revolutions


Haitian Slave Revolts


Saint-Domingue (French) = 500,000 slaves vs. 40,000 whites
Revolt against oppression of slaves, brutal treatments they endured
Mulattoes (mixed race) divided over cause

L'Overture Aligns with French


When Robespierre and French Nat'l Assembly abolished slavery in French colonies, Toussaint allied with France and continued war on slaveowners

Napoleonic Wars

1799 - 1812

Attempt to conquer Britain failed at the hands of Lord Nelson
When Russia assisted Britain, Napoleon tried to invade Russia, which also failed
Finally, 50,000 troops died when Napoleon tried to reinstitute power of Haiti, mostly from disease but also at hands of revolutionaries

Napoleon in Power

1799 - 1812

Concordat w/ church: feared counterrevolution
Negotiated to keep formerly Church lands in exchange for paying the salaries of the clergy

Code Napoleon


Equality before law
Career open to talents --> allowed people to pursue a career in their best ability as opposed to one dictated by birth and social status

Anti-Imperial Revolution


Toussaint L'Overture deceived, imprisoned, died soon thereafter
Blacks and Mulattoes remained organized, did not fall into anarchy
When Napoleon sent troops to reinstate imperial control over the colony, revolutionaries fought back and together with disease they were able to halt the onslaught of Napoleonic power.
Only successful slave revolt in history

Britain Abolishes Slave Trade


At first Britain tried to assist in suppressing revolt in Haiti, like the French this failed
British abolished slave trade for fear of further revolts
America followed suit by outlawing but did not actually abolish until the Civil War

Latin American Revolutions

1810 - 1826

Amerindians and Mestizos started first revolts
Napoleonic wars = opportunity to declare freedom --> led by Creoles

Abdication of Napoleon

April 1814

Yielded power to Louis XVIII
Eventually lived rest of his life at St. Helena in South Atlantic

Congress of Vienna

September 1814 - June 1815

Long term peace plan for Europe
Established a balance of power

British Neocolonialism


British domination of Latin America
Due to the Industrial Revolution taking place in the UK

Latin America an Amalgam of Beliefs


US+France: Revolutionary ambition for individual freedom and independence
Spain+Portugal: Conservative, religious, hierarchial powers
Africa: Rich traditions and customs