(2613- 2589 BCE)Sneferu built three pyramids, perhaps two weren't good enough for him. He finished the third and final pyramid, the Red pyramid with straight sides.
(15th century BCE) First female pharaoh. Ruled for 20 years.
(16th - 11th century BCE) Created because of the pyramid robbers. Thutmose was the first pharaoh to be buried there.
(3600 BCE) Scientists have discovered a tomb that was made several hundred years before there were pharaohs and even hieroglyphics.
( ruled 1351- 1334 BCE) First pharaoh to believe in only one God.
(ruled 1335- 1324 BCE) Tut was nine years old when he took the throne. Scientist suspect that he died from possible battle wound causing gangrene in his left knee. He reversed his fathers religious reforms.
(7th century BCE) Ashurbanipal's library in ancient Ninevah reveales a collection of broken clay tablets with much information of Ninevah's politics and ways of life.
Nubias lived toward the center of the Nile. They had an interesting relationship with Egypt. It is recorded that even some Nubians became Pharaoh. Nubians also developed an alphabetic writing system (200 BCE).
Rameses II had the largest professional army the wortld had ever seen. in 1274 BCE, He fought the Battle of Kadesh, the most documented piece of ancient history.
(760 BCE) Carthage was a place for markets, elections, and making laws. It was later overthrown by Rome during the Punic Wars.
Legend claims that twins Romulus and Remus were left to do in the forest but were saved and raised by wolves. They wanted to start their own empire and fought over who should rule. Romulus killed his brother and became the first leader of Rome.
(19 BCE) The Aeneid by Virgil is perhaps the most famous Roman poem. It is about a warrior in the Trojan war. It is said that Aeneid's descendants founded Rome.
(264- 146 BCE) Three wars between Carthage and Rome ultimately resulting in Rome's victory.
Camillus was the second founder of Rome. His actions were displeasing to Rome and he was driven out. However, when Gaul attacked Rome they reached out for his help. Gaul retreated, but whether it was influenced by Camillus we are not sure.
(3rd - 2nd centuries BCE) While Rome was fighting Carthage in the second Punic war, the king of Macedonia attacked Rome's client state and neighbor Illynia. There was a treaty reached years later stopping the attacks and allowing Macedonia to retain their victory over Illynia.
(140 BCE) Rome had conquered most of the Mediterranean sea and had gained much wealth; they also gained many slaves.
Tiberius, an aristocrat from Rome, went to Spain to fight in the army. He returned, having seen so much slavery in Spain, to Rome petitioning the Senate for land for the homeless. The Senate was so upset by this that Tiberius was beaten to death by the Senators.
(135-132 BCE) Eunuce, a Sicilian slave, led the first slave revolt in Roman Italy. He along with 400 others killed any master they came across. The revolt grew into 70,000 slaves fighting their masters.
Many modern cities were built on top of their original Roman structures. Rome could be considered the 'original' city.
Even though some Romans were very poor, there were some who lived comfortably although not rich.
The Romans believed that a fit body equalled a fit mind. They spent time and money on being fit. They also spend much of their energy bettering the sewers and being hygienic. They believed filthiness equated poor health.
Marcus Cato was a Roman senator (95- 46 BCE) and leader of the Optimates whose intention was to protect the Roman Republic against power seekers, most importantly being Julius Caesar.
(60 BCE) The First Tricmurate consisted of general Pompey,Marcus Crasses, conqueror of Spartacus and the richest man in Rome, and Julius caesar, the popular politician. They all wanted to better theirselves and change government rather then look after the people.
Crassus became governor of Syria in 55 BCE. While pursuing the Parthian general Surenas, Crassus was killed after having parlayed with him.
Cicero was regarded for saving Rome from another rebellion after thwarting the conspiracy of Catiline. Cicero eventually was exiled and was a key component to the Republics fall.
The Lighthouse of Alexandria was the world's first Lighthouse. Used in the Alexandrian harbor in the Mediterranean Sea, it stood for several hundred years before collapsing.
The Celts expanded and had a great kingdom in Europe. They were Astria's first inhabitants and noticed the wealth and benefitial use of salt.
(500 BCE) The Celts, although having no written language, told their stories through art.
(69-30 BCE) Cleopatra was not Egyptian but was Greek. She grew up in Alexandria. She died from a cobra bite after hearing of the death of Marc Antony.
(1st century BCE) Octavia, the sister of Augutus, was married many times and had nine children. She died when she was 60.
In 15 BC the temple of Dendur was built. There have been engravings discovered in the temple of Augustus as an Egyptian.
(11 BCE- 54 AD) Claudius was often made fun of because of his disabilities. Scientists believe that he may have suffered from Tourette's syndrome. His nephew encouraged people to throw pits of olives and dates at him.
Nero took the throne and reigned for fourteen years (54 - 68 AD). He is known to be Rome's most evil ruler. His mother forced him to become Emperor against his wishes and he later murdered his mother.
( 14 BCE- 33 AD) Agrippina the Elder was Caligula's mother. She married Germanicus and left with him for his military campaigns. She was his advisor and a prominent figure in politics.
(c. 26 AD) Emperor Tiberius left his colleague Sejanus in charge while he was away. Sejanus wanted the Empire to himself so he threw Tiberius' family in prison under the pretense that there were conspiracies in the city against them. Tiberius found out and had Sejanus killed.
The destruction layer is made up of ashes and debris. The Boudican revolt is the cause of this layer. Boudica and the Britons burnt three important Roman towns. the layer is 25- 40 cm thick and archeologist have not found any human remains.
There were 27 major Native tribes in Briton. Some were very close together while others were far apart. The Romans were aware of this.
(122 AD) Hadrian's wall is one of the farthest points in the Roman Empire. The Romans retreated while fighting the Britons and built a 73 mile long wall. It was an attempt to mark Rome's boundaries.
(61 AD) Boudica was a female warrior who lived in Briton. She tried to defend herself and her country against the Romans. The Romans, although outnumbered, defeated the Britons.
(33 - 46 AD) Christianity spreads pretty quickly. It is heavily spread through Constantinople, around the nile, and Carthage.
(272 AD - 337 AD) Constantine became emperor after winning a battle to become ruler of Rome. Before the battle, a cross appeared in the sky and under it said "With this sign you will conquer." He painted crosses on all his shields and won.
(5- 36 AD) Paul helped spread Christianity throughout the whole world. He taught that God was for everyone no matter who you were, rich or poor.
Constantine was the first christian emperor of Rome and allowed all religions to be legal. Before this, all religions were illegal except for the beliefs the Romans had adopted from the Greeks.
(5- 67 AD) Perpetua is one of the only female voices from this time that had not been changed as if she were a man.She was thrown into prison for being a Christian where she wrote a diary. She had a vision of the next day which included her execution. She was brave and she helped turn a mass killing into a kind of victory for faith.
(5th century BC) Fish sauce was made from fish or fish guts. There were many different kinds. There were different ones for the rich and the poor.
(330 AD) Constantinople was founded by Emperor Constantine. Constantinople was the new capital of Rome. By doing this they were separating the East and West even more.
Later Roman history has two types of hierarchy. The older rulers were Augusti and the younger rulers were Caesars. Caesars would become Augusti when they became older. This system did not work out well.
The Germans had long been apart of the Roman army. The Germans were being pushed out of their native land by the Huns. They started coming into Rome in vast numbers.
Rome was sacked many times before it finally fell. Eventually there were only a few thousand people left because most had moved away.
Attila the Hun, whose name means king of the huns, led the Huns in attacks against the Romans from 434-453 AD. He was, however, not entirely a villain.
Malaria was a deadly disease in late Rome. An archeologist was excavating a Roman home and found many young children who were all less then ten years old. He believed that the children all had malaria because the room was filled with herbs that had been used against malaria. Research proved him correct.