Backlash to Civil Rights Movement / Rise in Crime & Unemployment / Spike in Male Population ages 15-24 as Baby Boomers Age Up.

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1959

Rise in Crime / Change in Way FBI Kept Statistics / Rise in Unemployment / Rise in Baby Boom Generation (spike in male population ages 15 - 24).
Statistics not differentiated by race, though inaccurately correlated as a picture of lawlessness in the black community.

Riots of 1964 and Media Images Cultivate Culture of Fear. Southern Strategy of Nixon's Republican Party Exacerbates Tension Between Races

Approx. 1960 - Approx. 1969

Images cultivated impressions of a culture of fear. Exasperated tensions between races.
Fueled activities of Republican party, known as the Southern Strategy, cultivated by Nixon administration.

Nixon's Campaign for Law and Order / War on Drugs / Personification of Blacks as Lawless Drug Users Who Threaten Safety of General Population

Approx. 1970 - Approx. 1979

Continued personification of minorities (primarily blacks) as lawless drug users who threatened the safety of everyone.

Reagan's War on Drugs and Linkage of Crime and Welfare / Anti-Drug act of 1986

1980 - 1989

Reagan's tough on crime mantle and racially coded rhetoric is accompanied by images of black people as predators needing to be controlled. Exaggerated representations of drug problem, emergence of crack usage and its prevalence in black community raises inaccurate impression of relationship between crime and welfare. Massive funding committed to drug war and prison development.

Denial of Federal Benefits Program, established under Section 5301 of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-690


Federal and state courts enabled to deny all or selected federal benefits for drug trafficking or possession convictions such as student loans, housing benefits, food stamps and others.

Clinton Administration's Crime Bill of 1994 Provided for Capital Punishment and Mandatory Sentencing Requirements (from 20 years to life) for Drug Selling


1998 Higher Education Act Disqualifies Young People From Federal Aid for College


New Civil Rights Movements, such as Black Lives Matter, along with Revelations of Police Brutality, Shed Light on Injustice and Raise Questions Regarding Need for Criminal Justice and Prison Reform

Approx. 2010 - Approx. 2015