Evelyn Hu

International Conflicts

Cuban Revolution

July 26, 1953 - January 1, 1959

War in Vietnam

November 1955 - April 1975

Tet Offensive - Vietnam War

January 30, 1968 - September 23, 1968

International Incidents

Bay of Pigs

April 17, 1961 - April 19,1961

E. Howard Hunt attempted to forge Cuban exile leaders in the US into a government that would form the basis of a provisional government to take over Cuba after the Bay of Pigs Invasion. The failure of the invasion damaged his career.

Gulf of Tonkin Incidents

August 2, 1964 - August 4, 1964

It was originally claimed by the National Security Agency that a Second Gulf of Tonkin incident occurred on August 4, 1964, as another sea battle, but instead evidence was found of "Tonkin ghosts"3 and not actual North Vietnamese torpedo boats. In the 2003 documentary The Fog of War, the former Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara admitted that the August 2 USS Maddox attack happened with no Defense Department response, but the August 4 Gulf of Tonkin attack never happened.
The outcome of these two incidents was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by "communist aggression". The resolution served as Johnson's legal justification for deploying US conventional forces and the commencement of open warfare against North Vietnam.
source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_of_Tonkin_incident

Nixon's Visit to China

February 21, 1972 - February 28, 1972

It marked the first time a U.S. president had visited the PRC, and the visit ended 25 years of separation between the two sides. The visit allowed the American public to view images of China for the first time in over two decades. Nixon dubbed the visit "the week that changed the world." The repercussions of the Nixon visit were vast, and included a significant shift in the Cold War balance, pitting the PRC with the U.S. against the Soviet Union. "Nixon going to China" has since become a metaphor for an unexpected or uncharacteristic action by a politician.
source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972_Nixon_visit_to_China

Chilean coup d'état

September 11, 1973

A report prepared by the United States Intelligence Community in 2000, at the direction of the National Intelligence Council, that echoed the Church committee, states that
Although CIA did not instigate the coup that ended Allende's government on 11 September 1973, it was aware of coup-plotting by the military, had ongoing intelligence collection relationships with some plotters, and—because CIA did not discourage the takeover and had sought to instigate a coup in 1970—probably appeared to condone it.
The report stated that the CIA "actively supported the military Junta after the overthrow of Allende but did not assist Pinochet to assume the Presidency." After a review of recordings of telephone conversations between Nixon and Henry Kissinger, Robert Dallek concluded that both of them used the CIA to actively destabilize the Allende government. In one particular conversation about the news of Allende's overthrow, Kissinger complains about the lack of recognition of the American role in the overthrow of a "communist" government, upon which Nixon remarked "Well, we didn't - as you know - our hand doesn't show on this one."
source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_Chilean_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat

Presidential Tenure

Eisenhower Presidency

20 January 1953 - 19 January 1961

JFK Presidency

January 20, 1961 - November 21, 1963

LBJ Presidency

November 22, 1963 - January 19, 1969

Richard Nixon Presidency

January 20, 1969 - August 9, 1974

Watergate Scandal

First Watergate Breakin

May 28, 1972

Second Watergate Breakin

June 17, 1972

The Watergate Committee is created

January 1973

The committee’s single closed-door witness, James McCord, had been security coordinator for the Committee to Re-elect the President. Preparing to sentence McCord for his crime, Federal District Judge John Sirica advised him to cooperate fully with the Senate inquiry.
In a private meeting with committee counsel Dash, McCord confirmed rumors that Nixon aides John Dean and Jeb Magruder knew about the plot before it took place and he promised to name others. When Dash reported this to the media, the resulting furor led McCord to request the opportunity to address members of the committee in secret session.
In that session, McCord testified that his boss, G. Gordon Liddy, had told him that Attorney General John Mitchell had approved the specific burglary plans. McCord also revealed the involvement of Dean, Magruder, and former presidential counsel Charles Colson. McCord promised to provide documents that would substantiate his allegations.
Within minutes of the closed session’s conclusion, details of McCord’s disclosures reached the media. That evening, vice-chairman Howard Baker of Tennessee, in an address to the Washington Press Club, confirmed what the committee had learned about Dean and Magruder.
McCord’s performance at that closed session initiated one of the most important investigations in Senate history and began the unraveling of the White House cover-up. As one journalist later observed, McCord “opened the road to havoc.”
source: http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Watergate_Investigation.htm

First Congressional Hearing on Watergate

March 28, 1973

US Domestic events

Vietnam War Protests 1967

October 21, 1967

On October 21, 1967, one of the most prominent anti-war demonstrations took place, as some 100,000 protesters gathered at the Lincoln Memorial; around 30,000 of them continued in a march on the Pentagon later that night. After a brutal confrontation with the soldiers and U.S. Marshals protecting the building, hundreds of demonstrators were arrested. One of them was the author Norman Mailer, who chronicled the events in his book “The Armies of the Night,” published the following year to widespread acclaim. Also in 1967, the anti-war movement got a big boost when the civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. went public with his opposition to the war on moral grounds, condemning the war’s diversion of federal funds from domestic programs as well as the disproportionate number of African-American casualties in relation to the total number of soldiers killed in the war.
source: http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/vietnam-war-protests

Vietnam War Protests 1967

October 21, 1967

On October 21, 1967, one of the most prominent anti-war demonstrations took place, as some 100,000 protesters gathered at the Lincoln Memorial; around 30,000 of them continued in a march on the Pentagon later that night. After a brutal confrontation with the soldiers and U.S. Marshals protecting the building, hundreds of demonstrators were arrested. One of them was the author Norman Mailer, who chronicled the events in his book “The Armies of the Night,” published the following year to widespread acclaim. Also in 1967, the anti-war movement got a big boost when the civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. went public with his opposition to the war on moral grounds, condemning the war’s diversion of federal funds from domestic programs as well as the disproportionate number of African-American casualties in relation to the total number of soldiers killed in the war.
source: http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/vietnam-war-protests

Vietnam War Protests 1967

October 21, 1967

On October 21, 1967, one of the most prominent anti-war demonstrations took place, as some 100,000 protesters gathered at the Lincoln Memorial; around 30,000 of them continued in a march on the Pentagon later that night. After a brutal confrontation with the soldiers and U.S. Marshals protecting the building, hundreds of demonstrators were arrested. One of them was the author Norman Mailer, who chronicled the events in his book “The Armies of the Night,” published the following year to widespread acclaim. Also in 1967, the anti-war movement got a big boost when the civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. went public with his opposition to the war on moral grounds, condemning the war’s diversion of federal funds from domestic programs as well as the disproportionate number of African-American casualties in relation to the total number of soldiers killed in the war.
source: http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/vietnam-war-protests

1968 DNC & Nixon's Treason

August 26, 1968 - August 29, 1968

LBJ had discovered that Nixon, through his campaign representative, had persuaded the Vietnamese side to back out of the Paris Peace Talks, promising them there would be a better deal if he were elected.

source: Johnson's tapes; http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-21768668

Neil Armstrong walks the moon

June 21, 1969

Kent State Protests & Shootings

May 4, 1970

Richard Nixon was elected President of the United States in 1968, promising to end the Vietnam War. In November 1969, the My Lai Massacre by American troops of between 347 and 504 civilians in a Vietnamese village was exposed, leading to increased public opposition in the United States to the war. The nature of the draft also changed in December 1969, with the first draft lottery since World War II. This eliminated deferments allowed in the prior draft process, affecting many college students and teachers.
The war had appeared to be winding down throughout 1969, so the new invasion of Cambodia angered those who believed it only exacerbated the conflict. Across the country, campuses erupted in protests in what Time called "a nation-wide student strike", setting the stage for the events of early May 1970.
source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_shootings

Release of the Pentagon Papers

June 1971

The Pentagon papers refers to classified documents that is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The papers were discovered and released by Daniel Ellsberg, and first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of The New York Times in 1971. A 1996 article in The New York Times said that the Pentagon Papers had demonstrated, among other things, that the Johnson Administration "systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress."
source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentagon_Papers

E. Howard Hunt

Spy Novel Writer

1942 - September 1949

Hunt was a prolific author, primarily of spy novels. During and after the war, he wrote several novels under his own name — East of Farewell (1942), Limit of Darkness (1944), Stranger in Town (1947), Bimini Run (1949), and The Violent Ones (1950) — and, more famously, several spy and hardboiled novels under an array of pseudonyms, including Robert Dietrich, Gordon Davis and David St. John. Hunt won a Guggenheim Fellowship for his writing in 1946.

CIA Career

October 1949 - April 1970

Hunt joins the Special Activities Division of the CIA. Hunt became station chief in Mexico City in 1950. In Mexico, Hunt helped devise Operation PBSUCCESS, the successful covert plan to overthrow Jacobo Arbenz, the elected president of Guatemala. Following assignments in Japan and as station chief in Uruguay, Hunt was given the assignment of forging Cuban exile leaders in the United States into a broadly representative government-in-exile that would, after the Bay of Pigs Invasion, form a provisional government to take over Cuba. The failure of the invasion damaged his career. After the Bay of Pigs, Hunt became a personal assistant to Allen Dulles.

Hunt told the Senate Watergate Committee in 1973 that he had served as the first Chief of Covert Action for the CIA's Domestic Operations Division. He told the New York Times in 1974 that he spent about four years working for the division, beginning shortly after it was set up, by the Kennedy Administration in 1962, over the "strenuous opposition" of Richard Helms and Thomas H. Karamessines. He said that the division was assembled shortly after the Bay of Pigs operation, and that "many men connected with that failure were shunted into the new domestic unit." He said that some of his projects from 1962 to 1966, which dealt largely with the subsidizing and manipulation of news and publishing organizations, "did seem to violate the intent of the agency's charter."

Hunt was undeniably bitter about what he perceived as President John F. Kennedy's lack of commitment in overturning the Fidel Castro regime. In his semi-fictional autobiography, Give Us This Day, he wrote: "The Kennedy administration yielded Castro all the excuse he needed to gain a tighter grip on the island of Jose Marti, then moved shamefacedly into the shadows and hoped the Cuban issue would simply melt away." Disillusioned, he retired from the CIA on May 1, 1970.
source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Howard_Hunt

White House Plumbers

1971 - 1974

He went to work for the Robert R. Mullen Company, later deemed a CIA front company. In 1971 he was recruited by Charles Colson, special counsel to President Richard Nixon, and joined the President's Special Investigations Unit (alias White House Plumbers).

A few days after the Watergate break-in's, Nixon was recorded as saying "V]ery bad, to have this fellow Hunt, ah, you know, ah, it's, he, he knows too damn much and he was involved, we happen to know that. And that it gets out that the whole, this is all involved in the Cuban thing, that it's a fiasco, and it's going to make the FBI, ah CIA look bad, it's going to make Hunt look bad, and it's likely to blow the whole, uh, Bay of Pigs thing which we think would be very unfortunate for CIA and for the country at this time, and for American foreign policy, and he just better tough it and lay it on them."

Hunt put pressure on the White House and the Committee to Re-Elect the President for cash payments to cover legal fees, family support, and expenses, for himself and his fellow burglars. Key Nixon figures, including Haldeman, Charles Colson, Herbert Kalmbach, John Mitchell, Fred LaRue, and John Dean eventually became entangled in the payoff schemes, and large amounts of money were passed to Hunt and his accomplices, to try to ensure their silence at the trial, by pleading guilty to avoid prosecutors' questions, and afterwards.

Hunt's wife, Dorothy, was killed in the December 8, 1972 plane crash of United Airlines Flight 553 in Chicago. Congress, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the crash, and found it to be an accident caused by crew error. Over $10,000 in cash was found in Dorothy Hunt's handbag in the wreckage.

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Howard_Hunt

Investigation of Ted Kennedy

June 1971

Hunt was tasked to investigate Ted Kennedy related to the Chappaquiddick incident and his potential extramarital affairs. Though the investigation yielded little results.

Disinformation related to Vietnam

September 1971

In September 1971, Hunt forged and offered to a Life magazine reporter two top-secret U.S. State Department cables designed to prove that President Kennedy had personally and specifically ordered the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu. Hunt told the Senate Watergate Committee in 1973 that he had fabricated the cables to show a link between President Kennedy and the assassination of Diem, a Catholic, to estrange Catholic voters from the Democratic Party, after Colson suggested he "might be able to improve upon the record."

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Howard_Hunt

Breakin of Daniel Ellsberg's Psychiatrist

September 3, 1971

In July 1971, Dr. Lewis J Fielding had refused an FBI request for psychiatric data on Daniel Ellsberg, a US military analyst who was instrumental in the discovery and release of the Pentagon Papers. The leak of those classified documents was one of the direct instigations for the formation of the White House Plumbers, a unit designed to plug further leaks from the White House.

John Dean

G. Gordon Liddy

Liddy organized and directed the burglary of the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate building in May and June 1972. After five of Liddy's operatives were arrested inside the DNC offices on June 17, 1972, subsequent investigations of the Watergate scandal led to Nixon's resignation in 1974. Liddy was convicted of burglary, conspiracy and refusing to testify to the Senate committee investigating Watergate. He served nearly fifty-two months in federal prisons.
source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G._Gordon_Liddy

White House Plumbers

John Mitchell (Head of CRP)

Former United States Attorney General and director of Nixon's 1968 and 1972 election campaigns; faced a maximum of 30 years in prison and $42,000 in fines; on February 21, 1975, Mitchell was found guilty of conspiracy, obstruction of justice. Mitchell actually served 19 months of prison time for his role in Watergate.

James McCord

H. R. Haldeman (Nixon's CofS)

White House chief of staff, considered the second most powerful man in the government during Nixon's first term; faced a maximum of 25 years in prison and $16,000 in fines; in 1975, he was convicted of conspiracy and obstruction of justice and received an 18-month prison sentence.

John Ehrlichman

Former assistant to Nixon in charge of domestic affairs; faced a maximum of 25 years in prison and $40,000 in fines. Ehrlichman was convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury and other charges; he served 18 months in prison.

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