AP World Timeline

Events

Mayan Civilization

1,800 BCE - 900 CE

The Mayan Civilization was centered in modern day Guatemala. It is one of the longest lasting ancient civilizations. The Mayans were very advanced in technology. They made advances in pottery, agriculture and math. We base our calendars off of theirs today. This ties into the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions.

Siddartha Guatama

563 BCE - 483 BCE

Siddartha Guatama, better known as the Buddha, or the enlightened one, was the son of the King of Sakya. He was raised never to see the pain and suffering that was happening outside of the kingdom walls. One day he snuck out and was shocked at what he saw. He decided to meditate to find a way to end suffering. He created the Buddhist religion that follows 4 Noble Truths and the 12 Fold path. This ties into the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions.

Cyrus the Great

559 bc - 530 bc

Cyrus the Great, otherwise known as the “father of the Iranian nation” was the first leader to be known as “Great”. This is because he founded the first world empire. He also unified the Medes with the Persians. Cyrus would be related to the second concept; the development of states and empires.

Achaemenid Empire

558 BCE - 330 BCE

The Achaemenid Empire was brought about by Cyrus the Great. It is centered in western Asia. It was the largest empire the world had been exposed to at that time. The Achaemenid empire was also very culturally diverse. Cyrus allowed people from different cultures to live in the empire. It influenced future emperors to do the same. This dynasty would relate to the second concept; the development of states and empires.

Confucius

551 BC - 479 BC

Confucius was a Chinese philosopher who created a system to live by, based on relationships with others. This ties into the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions because his system was used in the Chinese government. His system still exists today, although not as prominent.

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

The Roman Republic was a period of time where a new system of government was established. This new system was called an Aristocracy. An aristocratical government is one where all the power is held by the wealthy. This system did not work out because of the inequality between the social classes. This relates to the development of states and empires.

The Greco Persian Wars

499 BC - 449 BC

The Greco Persian Wars were a series of battles that were fought between the Persians and the Greeks. This war originated when Asia Minor was conquered by the Persians, leaving some of the Greeks under Persian rule. Eventually the Greeks prevailed and won the wars. The wars fall into the second key concept; the development of states and empires.

Collapse of Western Roman Empire

476 bc

The Western Roman empire was much weaker than the Easter, allowing it to be more susceptible to invasions. When Romulus was overthrown by Odoacer, a Germanic barbarian, the Western Empire had collapsed. The collapse relates to the development of states and empires.

Socrates

470 BC - 399 BC

Socrates was a Greek philosopher, and teacher. He shaped the Greek culture and society. Some of his teaching still remain today. Unfortunately, he was forced to take poison because he questioned the Greek government in a time of crisis. This relates to the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions.

Peloponnesian Wars

431 BCE - 404 BCE

The Peloponnesian Wars were a series of battles fought between the two biggest city-states in Greece; Athens and Sparta. The battles were started because the Spartans did not like the fact that the Athenians ruled the Delian League and had control of the Mediterranean Sea trade. Eventually, Sparta claims victory of the War. These battles would relate to the second and third concepts; the development of states and empires, and emergence of transregional networks of communication and exchange.

Plato

427 BC - 347 BC

Plato was a student of Socrates. He would listen to and record his teachings to interpret into his own thoughts. Plato was also a philosopher and mathematician. He founded the first Academy in Athens, for students to learn about subjects such as philosophy, math and literature. This relates to the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions.

Aristotle

384 BC - 322 BC

Aristotle was a student of both Socrates and Plato. Again, he would listen and record the teaching from both of them to teach others about his ideas. Aristotle was a philosopher and
a scientist. In the year 338 BC, he began tutoring Alexander the Great. This relates to the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions.

Alexander the Great

356 BC - 323 BC

Alexander the Great was a powerful king. He ruled over Macedon for 17 years before dying of an unknown cause. Alexander relates to the second key concept, the development of states and empires because he conquered many states and expanded his empire.

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BCE - 185 BCE

The Mauryan Dynasty was one of India’s greatest dynasties. It covered what is now Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, the vast majority of India, and parts of Pakistan. The Mauryan Dynasty was one of the main reasons the Aryan culture was widely spread. This dynasty ties in with the second key concept, which is the development of states and trade.

Ashoka

304 BC - 232 BC

Ashoka was an emperor of the Maurya Dynasty. He ruled for 37 years before he died.
Ashoka’s reign ties into the development of states and empires concept, because he ruled most of India. This also ties into the development of codification of religious and cultural traditions because at the start of his reign, he was a ruthless cruel leader. By the end however, he had converted to Buddhism and centered his rulings on virtue.

Shi Huangdi

259 bc - 210 bc

Shi Huangdi was the emperor who built the Terracotta Warriors. As mentioned before, he was the emperor of the Qin Dynasty. He relates to the development of states and empires.

Qin Dynasty

221 bc - 206 bc

The Qin Dynasty was one that did not last very long. Although, it did accomplish many things. One being that it was the first unified state in Chinese history. One artifact from the Qin Dynasty is the Terracotta Warriors, which the emperor built to protect his tomb. This dynasty is related to the development of states and empires.

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

The Han Dynasty was one of the longest lasting Dynasties in Chinese history. The Han created many technological and economical advances and also adopted the Confucian ideologies. This dynasty can be related to both the development of states and empires, and the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions.

Augustus (Octavian)

63 BCE - 14 CE

Augustus was the emperor at the time of Pax Romana. He was also the first emperor of Rome after Julius Caesar was assassinated. Augustus was deemed a god by the Roman Senate after he died from an illness. Augustus would relate to the development of states and empires because of his expansion of the Roman Empire while keeping under control.

Pax Romana

27 BC - 180 AD

Pax Romana, literally translated to Roman Peace, was a period of Roman history where the empire was at its peak. It began with the ruler Octavian, better known as Augustus. This came after the final war of the Roman Republic. Pax Romana is related to the development of states and empires because this was the state of the Roman Empire for more than 200 years.

Founding of Roman Republic

27 bc

The Roman Republic was founded in 27 BC by Augustus Caesar. He was the first emperor of the new empire. As a result of the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, Rome was founded. The establishment of Rome would relate to the second concept, development of states and empires.

Jesus

4 bc - 30 ad

According to the Bible, Jesus is the son of God. He was born by a virgin mother and resurrected three days after he died. Jesus spent his life spreading the word of God to all those around him. This relates to the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

184 CE - 204 CE

The Yellow Turban Rebellion took place in Han China during the reign of Emperor Ling. It was an uprising from the lower class citizens. It was a secret society made up of these citizens called the Yellow Turbans. They wore yellow to show their connection to the earth element. They believed that the earth could suppress the “fire” that was the Han Dynasty. This rebellion would fall under the second key concept, which is the development of states and empires.

Gupta Dynasty

320 - 550

The Gupta Dynasty was centered in modern day India. Their citizens developed the decimal system and many scripts of both Sanskrit and Hindu. Many invasions eventually lead to their downfall in 550 CE. The Gupta empire would be involved in the development of states and empires concept.

Christianity Becomes Official State Religion of Roman Empire

330 ce

Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire because of Constantine. His mother converted to Christianity, but had to keep it a secret because if not, she would get executed and Constantine would lose his rank. Constantine took it upon himself to fight for his mother. The night before the battle he told Jesus that if he would allow Constantine to win the battle, than Constantine would convert to Christianity. The battle was one and Constantine became the emperor, and converted everyone to Christianity. This relates to the development and codification of religious and cultural traditions.

The Kingdom of Ghana

400 - 1236

The Kingdom of Ghana was the dominant empire when the Muslims travelers arrived. They domesticated the camel which helped the kingdom with the gold trade, boosting their economy and encouraging trade with other regions of the world. This empire relates to the first key concept.

Muhammed

570 - 632

Muhammad is known in the Islamic faith as the one prophet of God. He wrote the Qur'an based on all of the words and teachings God told him about. This relates to the first and third key concepts.

Sui Dynasty

589 - 618

The Sui Dynasty was a very short dynasty. However, during this short period, the nation was reunified and the economics and the politics were stable. This dynasty relates to the second and third key concepts.

Tang

618 - 907

The Tang Dynasty was founded by a rebellious citizen who claimed the title of emperor for himself. The second emperor however was ambitions and would stop at nothing to get to where he wanted to be. Rice prices were low and so were taxes during Tang Taizong's rule. This relates to the third key concept.

Umayyad Dynasty

661 - 750

The Umayyad Dynasty was the second Islamic caliphate. They had a good reputation for trading relations with other regions, which helped them gain more trade connections. They had a very tight centralized government, which caused many problems. They allowed citizens who practiced religions other than Islam to stay, however they placed a tax on whoever did not convert to Islam. The citizens who did convert were not given anymore privilege then they had before. They could not hold any government position because only Arabs could be officials. The dynasty fell because of a corrupt government. This dynasty is related to key concept 1 and 3.

Silla Dynasty

668 - 935

Silla was one of the three kingdoms centered in Korea called the Samhan. The Silla Dynasty is one of the longest dynasties. This dynasty relates to the second and third key concepts.

Abbasid Dynasty

750 - 1258

The Abbasid Dynasty was the successor of the Umayyad Dynasty, making it the third Islamic caliphate. Their civilization was not centered around conquering, it was more focused on developing its culture. The caliph system survived throughout their reign. The dynasty fell because of civil wars, corruption of government, and peasant uprisings. This dynasty’s legacy relates to key concept 3.

Reign of Charlemagne

768 - 814

Charlemagne was the only king to be crowned on Christmas day. He ruled the majority of Western Europe. In 771, he was crowned the king of the Franks. In 800, he was named king of the Romans. He converted so many to Christianity, that when he died, he knew that it would stay the dominant religion for a long time.

Heian Period

794 - 1185

The Heian Period was a time in Japan when the emperor was a ceremonial figurehead, rather than an actual leader. The real power was held by an aristocratic family known as the Fujiwara family. This system continued for over nine centuries. The Heian Period was heavily influenced by Chinese culture. The literature was written in the Chinese language and the majority of boys who were educated, were educated in China. This period ties into the second key concept.

The Kingdom of Angkor

802 - 1431

Literally meaning "The Holy City" Angkor was an empire located in modern day Cambodia. They were known for vast and intricate monuments, and statues. Their downfall came after many invasions from the Thai military. The Angkor Empire relates to the first and second key concepts.

The Great Schism

1054

The Great Schism was a split between the Roman Catholic faith and the Orthodox faith. The Roman Catholics in the West, while the Orthodox resided in the East. This relates to the secomd and third key concepts.

Norman Invasion of England

1066

In 1066, William The Conqueror led an attack on England with three allies; Norman, Brenton and the French. This invasion and occupation relates with the second key concept.

First Crusade

1095

The Crusades were a series of wars fought between European Christians and Muslims for the control of Jerusalem, or the “Holy Land”. These wars were inspired by a speech made by Pope Urban II that encourages Christians to take back their Holy Land. In the First Crusade, the Europeans surprised the Seljuks and they took over Jerusalem by killing the Muslims and Jews inside the city. The First Crusade relates to key concept 2.

Reign of Genghis Khan

1190 - 1227

Genghis Khan had been living in a nomadic tribe his whole life. When he united some of the tribes around him, he had a bigger army. They invaded and took over China. Genghis established his rule and continued to conquer until his death. He left a legacy for his successors to uphold.

Zimbabwe

1200 - 1450

Great Zimbabwe was an empire that served many purposes. One major one being that is was a liaison for other African counties to Sofala, in Swahili. This was for trade purposes. Sofala was on the coast of Africa, so when new trade ships came in, Great Zimbabwe would be the first to get it and distribute it to other countries. This relates to the first and second key concepts.

The Fourth Crusade

1201 - 1204

The Fourth Crusade was much different than its predecessors. This battle was fought against Constantinople, and Jerusalem was never attacked. Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire was under siege by the crusaders.

Sultanate of Delhi

1206 - 1526

The Sultanate of Delhi was the many Muslim empires that ruled in India. It was founded by Muhammad of Ghor, who captured Delhi in 1192. This relates to the second key concept.

Mali

1230 - 1600

The Mali Empire was an empire that included several surrounding kingdoms, such as the Ghana Kingdom and many others around the Senegal and Niger Rivers. Mali controlled almost all trade from west Africa during the 13th century. This empire relates to the first key concept.

Marco Polo's Trip to China

1275 - 1292

Marco Polo, one of the first Europeans to travel to Mongol China. He stayed with Kublai Khan for 17 years before returning home. This relates to the first and second key concepts.

The Reign of Kublai Khan

1279 - 1288

Kublai Khan was one of Genghis Khan's grandsons. He ruled the Yuan Dynasty for 9 years. He established the Yuan Dynasty when he conquered Southern China. He did not just focus on violence. He held an interest in the culture, and the benefits of the people.

Mongol Conquest of all China

1279 - 1368

Kublai Khan expanded the Mongol Empire into Southern China by force, thus having conquered all of China. The Mongols started a new dynasty called the Yuan, and Kublai Khan was the first emperor. This relates to the third key concept.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

The Yuan Dynasty was started by Kublai Khan when he conquered Southern China. This dynasty lasted for 89 years before the Ming Dynasty took over. This dynasty relates to the second and third key concept.

Ottoman dynasty

1299 - 1922

The Ottoman Dynasty was an Islamic state. The majority of the citizens were Sunni Muslims. The empire was started when the Turks defeated the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. After conquering it, the renamed it to what is modern day Istanbul. This relates to the third key concept.

Reign of Mansa Musa

1312 - 1337

Mansa Musa, the grand-nephew of the empire's founder Sundiata, ruled at the highest point of the empire. He has been named the richest man ever, with a net worth of $400 billion. When arriving in Cairo, he gave out so much gold that the economy was destroyed for almost a decade. Mansa Musa relates to the second key concept.

Ibn Battuta's Journey

1325 - 1355

In 1325, Ibn Battua, a Moroccan legal scholar, took an annual pilgrimage to Mecca. When he arrived at Mecca, he did not return home. He traveled through Mesopotamia and Persia, eventually reaching India. To get to India, he traveled through the main trade routes. After serving as a judge in India, he traveled to Spain. From Spain he joined a camel caravan to see the Mali Empire. In 1355, he finally returned home to Mecca. This relates to the first key concept

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Years War was a series of battles fought between England and France. These battles brought on the invention of the longbow, cannons and firearms. With these new technological advances, the castles and the knights were soon outdated. Both monarchs maintained a permanent military because they were never certain when they might get attacked. The wars relate to the third key concept.

Bubonic Plague

1347 - 1351

The Bubonic Plague was a disease that was unescapable. The first known case of the disease was a man from the Mongol Empire. The bacteria spread through fleas and rats, which made prevention near to impossible. The people though it was a sign from God, telling them they had done something wrong, but when they approached the church, they did not know how to help the people. Citizens had received the disease in Europe because of ships that were carrying infected fleas and rats on the trade routes. In Europe the plague spread very quickly because of their dense population. The plague is related to Key concept 1 and 3.

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Hongwu was the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty. This was also the first dynasty after the Mongol reign. Hongwu wanted a change from their style of government, so he focused on a very tightly centralized government. He reestablished Confucian beliefs and took away the job of a chief minister. This empire relates to the third key concept.

The Songhay Empire

1375 - 1591

The Songhay Empire dominated Western Africa in the 1400s-1500s. This empire was one of the largest empires in Africa. Two important cities are Timbuktu and Djenné. After they were conquered they turned into major trading cities. This empire relates to the first and third key concepts.

Prince Henry the Navigator

March 4, 1394 - November 13, 1460

Prince Henry is an important prince because of his journey around the Iberian Peninsula and through the Strait of Gibraltar. Henry is credited with inspiring the Age of Discoveries and was a prominent explorer of his time. Henry’s expeditions relate to key concepts one and three.

Mehmed the Conqueror

March 30, 1432 - May 3, 1481

Mehmed the Conqueror was one of the first rulers of the Ottoman Empire. He was responsible for the fall of the Byzantine Empire. He expanded his empire, and was respected by his people. This relates to the third key concept.

Inca Empire

1438 - 1533

The Incan Empire was centered in Andean South America. They ruled in a very efficient administrative and militant way. The fall of the Incas came from Spanish invaders who took the current emperor prisoner until he was given all of their gold. The Spanish got what they wanted but killed the emperor anyways. He then ordered his troops to invade and conquer the Incan Empire, causing their downfall. The Incan Empire relates to the second and third key concepts.

Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade

1441

When the Portuguese first sailed to Africa, they were in search of gold, not slaves. When they realized that they could make a profit off of the slaves, they exploited the African people, exporting a total of 12 million people. This gave the entire African race a negative connotation during this time. This is related to key concept 2.

Martin Luther

10 November 1483 - 18 February 1546

Martin Luther was the man who unintentionally began the Reformation. It began when Martin saw Catholics selling indulgences in marketplaces and other trading or buying venues. He was upset that people were taking advantage of the Church and using its faith for money. Because of this, Martin wrote the 95 Thesis. The 95 Thesis was created to alert the Pope that this was happening. However, what Martin did not know was that the Pope already knew, and was encouraging the indulgences. Martin posted his thoughts on the wall of a church so that it would get to the Pope. People saw this as a revolt against the Catholic church. Soon Martin’s ideas were being mass produced on brochures, and new Protestant faiths were created. Because of this, this relates to the second key concept.

Dias' Voyage into Indian Ocean

1488

Bartolomeu Dias was the first explorer to sail around Africa. His goal was to create a route to the Indian Ocean, without going through land. He wanted to do this because when trading through land, there are lots of people that the item goes through, decreasing or increasing the value. He succeeded in his journey and created a new trade route.

Columbus' first voyage

1492

In 1492 Columbus sailed to a new world, the modern day Americas. On this journey, he not only brought passengers, but slaves, new crops, and disease. This is why his voyage relates to key concept one.

The Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

The Treaty of Tordesillas was created for the division of land between Portugal and the Crown of Castile. There was little to no conflict in the writing of this treaty. This relates to the third key concept.

Safavid Dynasty

1501 - 1722

The Safavid Dynasty lasted for 235 years. This empire is one of the three gunpowder empires. They are considered to be on of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest. Because of their success, they go in the third key concept.

John Calvin

July 10 1509 - May 27 1564

John Calvin was a pastor and the founder of Calvinism. Calvinism is one of the Protestant religions that were brought about during the Reformation. Because of the social and economical changes happening because of the Reformation, this religion relates to the second key concept.

Spanish conquest of Mexico/Aztecs

1519 - 1521

When the Spanish conquered the Aztecs, it started their major conquest of the Americas. When the natives were under the Spanish rule, they became workers and slave laborers. This relates to the first category.

Mughal dynasty

1526 - 1857

The Mughal Dynasty was based in the subcontinent of India. It was founded by Babur when he defeated the Delhi Sultanate. The form of government was an absolute monarchy. One of the most famous rulers was Akbar the Great. He unified his empire by being religiously tolerant and generous. Any battles over religion were fought verbally, not with weapons. The Mughal Dynasty relates to the third key concept.

Foundation of Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

1534

The Society of Jesus is a male based organization, whose purpose is to spread the word of the Gospel. This society began when St. Ignatius of Loyola had a religious experience after being wounded in battle. The organization was approved six years later by Pope Paul III in 1540. This society relates to the second key concept.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent was the “counter argument” to the Reformation. It stated why Protestants were against God, and converting to this religion was a sin. This brought about many social changes, altering Europe’s culture at that time. The Council of Trent is classified under the second key concept because of these changes to the culture.

Spanish conquest of the Incas

1552 - 1572

Much like when the Spanish conquered the Aztecs, they were at an advantage because of the advanced technology. This overpowered the Incas and lead to their defeat, relating it to the first and third key concepts.

Reign of Akbar

11 February 1556 - 27 October 1605

Akbar the Great ruled the Mughal Dynasty. He is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of his time. Akbar sensed disunity in his empire and he wanted to make a change. He was already very religiously tolerant, so he decided to lift the tax on non-Muslims, previously stating that anyone who was not a Muslim, must have a tax on them. Akbar also tried creating a universal religion, but failed in the attempt. Akbar relates to all three of the key concepts.

Galileo Galilei

February 15, 1564 - January 8, 1642

Galileo was a famous Italian philosopher. He is also known for his work in astronomy, physics, engineering, and math. He was one of the most important scientists during the Renaissance. Galileo made advancements to objects like telescopes, and theories like the laws of motion. One of Galileo’s most famous findings was that everything did not revolve around the Earth. Galileo and his findings relate to the first and second key concepts.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

The Tokugawa Shogunate was the last feudal Japanese government. At the head of the government were the shoguns. This form of government brought about a new social order with new classes. All of the citizens answered to the shoguns. Because of the change in society, this relates to the second key concept.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Beginning as a war between the Protestants and Catholics, the Thirty Years’ War turned into a major conflict between the majority of Europe. This turned the conflict from religion to politics. The war began because of forced religious uniformity. The war resulted in the Peace of Westphalia. Because of the changes in society, and the expansion that this war brought, it relates to the second and third key concepts.

John Locke

29 August 1632 - October 28, 1704

John Locke is credited with creating classical liberalism. He questioned society, how it was formed, and why we have certain social customs. Locke also questioned how much power the state had over it’s people. Because of his thinking and innovation, John Locke relates to the second key concept.

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

The Qing Dynasty was the last of the Chinese dynasties. When the Qing fell, China became a republic. The Qing Dynasty’s also known as the Manchu Dynasty’s, capital was Beijing. This relates to the third key concept.

Peace of Westphalia

May 1648 - October 1648

The Peace of Westphalia was a treaty that was made to end the Thirty Years War. This treaty allowed anybody to practice whatever religion they chose. The treaty also prompted the Spanish decline. This relates to the second and third key concepts.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

The Seven Years War is more commonly known in America as the French and Indian War. The root of the conflict started because of the French trying to take land that did not belong to them. This war relates to the third key concept.

James Watt Perfects the Steam Engine

1765

The steam engine was one of the biggest advancements in the Industrial Revolution. It uses coal to power an engine that makes transit more affordable, easy to use, and faster. This relates to the first category.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American Revolution took place during the 1700’s. The American colonists did not want the British Monarchy ruining their new found land of freedom, so they started a revolution. This relates to the third key concept.

Simon Bolivar

1783 - 1830

Simón Bolivar was a large part of the Latin American revolution. He wanted to create a better system of government so that the Latin Americans would be more independent and not rely on the Spanish to control their government. Because he was involved in a revolution he falls into the third key concept.

Establishment of 1st colony in Australia

1788 - 1850

Britain first colonized in Australia in 1788 because they wanted to take advantage of the resources Australia had to offer. They took control of Australian crops, culture and people, and made them their own. Today, the majority of the Australian culture is still British influenced. This fits into both the first and second key concepts because of the economic and cultural aspects of the colonization.

Establishment of 1st colony in Australia

1788 - 1850

Britain first colonized in Australia in 1788 because they wanted to take advantage of the resources Australia had to offer. They took control of Australian crops, culture and people, and made them their own. Today, the majority of the Australian culture is still British influenced. This fits into both the first and second key concepts because of the economic and cultural aspects of the colonization.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The French Revolution took place because of the social and political reform that needed to happen in France at that time. The king was above the law, and the people thought that it was not right, so they created the Magna Carta, stating that no man is above the law. This falls into the third key concept.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

The Haitian Revolution was prompted by the unfair treatment of the people of color in Haiti. There was inequality between the slaves, ‘gens du couleur’, and the landowners. There was a lack of political representation for all social classes, and that is why there was a revolt. This relates to the third key concept.

Cotton Gin

1793

The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney to speed up the production of cotton. This was a huge advancement in technology and it was quickly widely used. This is a factor of the industrialization period. This falls into the first key concept.

Reign of Napoleon

1799 - 1814

Napoleon was a dictator that took over France in 1799. France had just overcome the Reign Of Terror, and Napoleon wanted to win over the citizens by making promises and giving them things. Napoleon was a strong Nationalist and he promoted those ideas throughout his reign.

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

Napoleon wanted to expand the French empire at any cost. He promoted nationalism on a widespread scale. Surrounding nations picked up on nationalism and it became a common way of life.

End of the British Slave Trade

1807

The Slave Trade Act of 1807 was meant to abolish slavery on a global scale, but it failed to do so. It did however abolish slave trade, which began the end of slavery for the Europeans. 26 years after the act was passed, slavery was abolished (Slavery Abolition Act 1833). This relates to the second key concept.

Wars of Independence in Latin America

1810 - 1825

Napoleon was the driving force of this revolution because he wanted to expand the French Empire into Latin America. The natives were against this, so they started a revolt against him. In the end, the natives won. This falls into the third key concept.

Opium War

1839 - 1842

The Opium War was fought between the British and the Chinese. The British traded opium with the Chinese. It was soon widespread in China, and the citizens were addicted. The Chinese government saw what the opium was doing to their people, so they stopped the trade. This angered the British and a war began. This relates to the first and the third key concepts.

Communist Manifesto

1848

The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx, a Prussian philosopher and revolutionary socialist. The Manifesto was a political pamphlet used to persuade people to choose communism over other political systems. This relates to the third key concept.

Women’s Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, NY

1848

At this convention, women from all over gathered to discuss what rights women actually had. Men and women decided of different rights with enlightened thinkers and at the end of the convention women came out more empowered.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

The Taiping Rebellion was fueled by the desire to end the dynastic cycle. They wanted to rid China of inhumane traditions like foot binding and implement equal education. This falls into the third key concept.

Sepoy Rebellion

1857 - 1858

The Sepoy Rebellion was started when Hindu soldiers were forced to bite off cartridges that were sealed with animal fat. This was strictly against their religion. This sparked an uprising with the soldiers, which soon became a rebellion. This falls into the third key concept.

Origin Of Species Published

1859

The Origin of species was published by Charles Darwin in 1859. It is considered to be the backbone of modern evolutionary biology. This was a large advancement in the science field and it offered a new way of thinking. This falls into the first key concept.

Emacipation Of Russian Slaves

1861

When the Russian serfs were freed, they were happy. However, they soon came to realize that there was nothing better for them. They could not get jobs, or own land, so the majority of them stayed in the same place, even after they were freed. This falls into the third and fourth key concepts.

Meji Restoration

1868

When Japan opened their borders after a long period of time when they were closed off from the world, they were far behind. They realized what they had missed, and how industrialization and modernization had changed the rest of the world. They quickly caught up and welcomed new technology and ideas from around the world. This falls into the first and third categories.

Meji Restoration

1868

When Japan opened their borders after a long period of time when they were closed off from the world, they were far behind. They realized what they had missed, and how industrialization and modernization had changed the rest of the world. They quickly caught up and welcomed new technology and ideas from around the world. This falls into the first and third categories.

Unification of Germany

1871

Otto Von Bismarck was responsible for the unification of Germany. He was famous for his saying, “Blood and iron.” He did not care about how other nations suffered, as long as Germany thrived. This falls into the second key concept.

Berlin West African Conference

1884 - 1885

The Berlin West African Conference, or the Congo Conference was a meeting of European countries to decide who got to control various regions of Africa. There were rules involved such as freedom of religion, and to protect other rights of the native population. This fall into the second key concept.

Henry Ford's Assembly Line

1891

Henry Ford was the first to adopt an assembly line in his factory. Various groups of workers specialize in different jobs, so they each do one part of the production, they pass it on to the next group, or person. This prompted new job specialization. This falls into the first key concept.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 - 1901

The Boxer Rebellion was made up of a secret society called the Righteous and Harmonious Fists. They were rebelling against the government, who was allowing Japanese and other western ideas to influence China. The Boxers did not want this new modernization, so they rebelled. This falls into the third key concept.

Russo Japanese War

1904 - 1905

The Russo-Japanese War was one of the biggest wars for Japan’s power. After defeating Russia, Japan gained a lot of military and political respect. This falls into the second key concept.

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

The Mexican Revolution was fueled by Mexicans who wanted equality and a part in their government. America gave money to the Mexicans to stop, but that only made them stronger. IN the end, the Mexicans gained their freedom. This relates to the third key concept.

The Fall Of the Qing Dynasty

1912

The fall of the Qing Dynasty was a result of government corruption, lower class rebellions, and lack of modernization. The government raised taxes to an unreasonable amount, and the people were not happy about it. Some groups liked the lack of influence from other countries (Righteous and Harmonious Fists), however the majority of younger citizens welcomed the western influence and promoted the industrialization. This falls into the third key concept.

Panama Canal

1914

The Panama Canal connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. This was heavily used in widespread maritime trade routes. This is why it relates to the second category.