Period2 Timeline AP WORLD

Events

Siddhartha Gautama(2.1)

563 BCE - 483 BCE

Siddhartha Gautama was a prince of a tribe known to be economically poor and on the outskirts geographically. As he grew up, he had little experience of the world outside the walls. In his 20's, he ventured out beyond the palace walls, quickly confronted the world outside. At age 29, Siddhartha Gautama left his kingdom, to determine a way to relieve universal suffering. He then started to live a ascetic life, studying and meditating. He then sat under a bodhi tree, until he saw the answer to the questions of suffering. He explained the 4 noble truths and the Eight fold Path, which became pillars of Buddhism.

Cyrus The Great(2.1)(2.2)

559 BC - 530 BC

Cyrus The Great was the founder of the Achaemenid dynasty. Throughout his reign, he conquered Babylon, Lydia, and the Greek cities of the Asian Minor. He brought wealth and used to construct cities. The famous" Cyrus Cylinder" were descriptions deposited in the foundations of the Esagila Temple.

Achaemenid Dynasty(2.2)

558 B.C.E. - 330 B.C.E.

The Achaemenid Dynasty was forged by Cyrus The Great. It spanned three continents, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Central Asia. The Dynasty was a foe to the Greek city states. Since the empire was for extent and had long endurance, Persian influenced upon the language, religion, architect, philosophy, laws, and government of nations around the world last tho this day.

Confucius( 2.1)

551 BC - 479 BC

Confucius was an important Chinese educator and philosopher. As a child, he learned about everything and was very interested in rituals. As he grew up, he worked as a state official. Confucius lived in a time when many states were fighting wars in China. He did not like this and wanted to bring order back to society. Confucius wanted people to think hard about problems. He promoted that strong relationships with other people( especially family members) were important.

Greco-Persian Wars(2.1)(2.2)

499 BCE - 449 BCE

Greco- Persian Wars were a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of time. Although the Persian empire was at the peak of its strength, the collective defense mounted by the Greeks overcame seemingly impossible odds and even succeeded in liberating Greek city states. Greek triumph ensured the survival of Greek culture and political structures. During the Persian Wars, revolts within Persian territories continued

Socrates(2.1)

469 bc - 399 bc

Classical Greek philosopher who layed out the fundamentals of modern Western philosophy. He is known for creating the Socratic method. He is best recognized for inventing the teaching practice of pedagogy. Some of his students are Plato and Aristotle.

Peloponnesian War(2.2)

431 BCE - 404 BCE

The first Peloponnesian War was in 460 to 446 BCE and the Second was in 431 to 404 BCE. The wars were fought between Athens and Sparta. Sparta and Athens were two major powers in Greece. Spheres of influence overlapped and caused conflicts between the two and started the wars. Long and complex conflicts was damaging to both sides but Sparta, with financial help from Persia finally won.

Alexander the Great (2.1)(2.2)

356 BC - 323 BC

Alexander the Great was son of Phillip II. At the age of 13, his farther hired a Greek philosopher Aristoke to be his personal tutor. Alexander was then put in the army at the age of 16. Soon after he came king of Macedonia in 336 BC. He was considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all time.

Mauryan Dynasty(2.1)(2.2)

321 BC - 185 BC

The Mauryan Dynasty was India's first empire. General Chandragupta Mauryan founded the empire. Mauryan provided a stable unified nation. He began rapidly expanding his power westward across central and western India. He embraced Jainism which increased social and religious renewal.

Ashoka( 2.2)

304 BC - 232 BC

Ashoka was India's great emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty. Often known as one of India's greatest emperors. Ashoka helped spread Buddhism throughout India. In order to gain wide publicly for his teachings and his work, Ashoka made them known by engraving them on rocks known as " The Rock edits."

Mayan Civilization(2.2)

300 BC - 1500

The Mayn excelled at agriculture, pottery, hieroglyph writing, calendar making and mathematics. They left behind an astonishing amount of impressive architecture. They were one of the most dominant indigenous societies. They lived in three separate sub-areas within distinct environment

Qin Dynasty(2.1)(2.2)

221 bc - 207 bc

The Qin Dynasty was the first unified, multi-national and power- centralized state in Chinese history. Emperor Shi Huangdi exerted great influence on following dynasties. He carried out many reforms in politics, economy, militarily affairs, and culture. To prevent his people to think freely he burnt many books which he feared would affect peoples thinking.

Han Dynasty(2.1 ) (2.2)

206 BCE - 220 CE

The Han Dynasty followed the philosophies of Confucianism and Legalism. Theoretically the Han Dynasty was a merti- based system. Poor could not afford education for kids. They started trading on the Silk road.Civil service was starting to become a big thing in the Han Dynasty. There was 130,000 employees. Civil service meant Civil service exams. Known as the "Golden Age"

Augustus(2.2)

27 BC - 14 AD

Augustus was the first Romain Emperor. He had unlimited patience and was very skilled. He brought durable;e peace and prosperity to the Roman world. Augustus led Rome's transformation from republic to empire. He made a better military and built cities. Augustus also created the foundations of the Pax Romana.

Pax Romana(2.3)

27 BC - 180

Also known as, " Roman Peace," this 200 year period saw unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the Empire. During Pax Romana, the Roman Empire reached its peak in terms of land area. Most of Rome's spectacular and huge construction projects were built during this time period.

Foundation of the Roman Rebuplic(2.2)

27 BC

In the beginning, Early Rome was governed by kings, but only a few of them knew how to rule. Soon after that, Romans took power over their own and ruled themselves. They then created a council known as the "Senate." The greatest challenge the Roman Republic faced was the Carthaginians. The fight between the two states was long and took place on land and on sea. Rome did end up winning and Carthage was destroyed.

Jesus(2.1)

4 bc - 30 ad

Jesus is a religious leader whose life and teachings are recorded in the Bible and the New Testament. He was a central figure in Christianity and emulated as the incarnation of God by many Christians all over the world. Jesus made trips to neighborhood villages and several people became his disciples. As word spread about Jesus's teachings and hearings, more people began too follow him. Jesus was then arrested for being accused of the King of Jews and was then crucified.

Yellow Turban Rebellion(2.2)

184 AD - 204

Yellow Turbans were Chinese secret society whose members uprising, contributed to the fall of the Han Dynasty. The rebels wore yellow headdresses to signify their association with the "earth" element. To suppress the uprising, which erupted in eastern, central China, the Han conscripted huge armies at great cost.

Beggining of Trans- Saharan Trade(2.3)

300 CE - 600 CE

The Beginning of the Trans- Saharan trade was when people traveled across the Sahara to reach Sub-Saharan Africa from North Africa. Trade was also to transport slaves and food to different places. People would travel on Camels and Caravans. At this time, the size of Islam was increasing. There was lots of Islamic preachers in each caravan. Caravans would go to great trade centers like Kumbi( the capital of Ghana.) They also had to pay taxes when they passed through Ghana CHECK DATE

Gupta Empire(2.1) (2.2)

320 CE - 550 CE

The Gupta Empire re untied India. It covered most of north and central India. Made important development in medicine, astrology, and art. Known to be the most peaceful and wealthy civilizations. From being patient people, Gupta's were very tolerant of other religions. They had very strong beliefs in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Axum (2.3)

400 CE - 900

Axum was the center of the trading power known as the" Aksumile Kingdom." Axum is located on northern Ethiopia. The Kingdom adopted the religion of Christianity. The civilization flourished for over a thousands years due to the emphasis it placed on commerce and trade. They had their own written language, which was Ge'ez. Axum was considered to be the holiest city in Ethiopia.

Collaspe of Western Roman Empire(2.2)

476 CE

Lots of Germanic barbarian tribes swept through such as Visigoths, Vandals, Angles, Saxons, Franks. Each group took turns ravaging the Empire, eventually carving out areas in which to settle down. In 476, Romulus( the last of the Roman emperors) in the west, was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odvacer. Some other factors that caused the Western Roman Empire to collapse was religion. Christianity was a problem because it is monotheistic( one god) and that caused a problem with traditional Roman religion, which was polytheistic. Also, Constantine split the empire into two parts.