results in a decreased labor force, creates demand for slaves
The Italian Renaissance was Europe’s initial transition from medieval to modern. Characterized by humanism, and an emphasis on the here and now. Life was still centered around Christianity and the church, but was increasingly political and economic. City-states illustrate the economic, independant culture of Italy during the Renaissance. This shift can also be traced in art as it became more realistic and artists began to take credit for their work as opposed to giving all credits to the madonna. The Renaissance was also rooted in the past, though it was a time of forward thinking scholars, and dug deep into the classic literature and philosophy of ancient Greece and Rome. An important foundation for such was the fall of Constantinople— which brought Greek scholars into Florence (1435).
Revolt of the poor, a result of highly polar social classes in Florence. Grandi, old money, popolo grosso, new money, and popolo minuto, "little people". The Ciompi revolt was successful, and resulted in a chaotic four year reign of power by the lower Florentine classes.
Cosimo de Medici (1389-1464) rises to power. Medici, a salesman, controlled Florence from behind the political scene and became a political despot.
Alliances formed between king and town. Power of taxation passed to king. Created standing armies. Levied taxes to raise money for new expenses-- army etc.
Greek scholars brought to Italy
"prince of humanism", most famous Northern humanist. Gained fame as an educational and religious reformer. His work illustrated that reforms were being demanded long before the Reformation granted such. United ideas of Humanism and Civic virtue-- believes that disciplined study of classics and bible were the best ways to reform individuals and society.
Bothered by scholasticism overshadowing humble Christian piety.
Castile and Aragon join and Spain begins to unify. Dynastically united but constitutionally separate. They also brought more power to Spain by promoting overseas exploration and sponsoring explorers such as Christopher Columbus. Created Spanish Empires in Mexico and Peru which brought power to Spain in the form of gold and silver.
Northern humanists developed a distinct culture:
more devoted to religious reform than Italians. More willing to write for lay audiences, and thanks to the invention of the printing press this was possible. Printing gave new power to elites in both church and state.
humanist text that depicted humans as the only beings with free will-- able to decide whether to "rise to the height of angels or descend to the level of pigs"
concentrated on Indian Ocean, brought in large profit margins.
The Treaty of Lodi, which had been created in 1454 to maintain peace between Naples, Florence, and Milan, was lifted in 1494 when Naples, Florence, and the Borgia Pope Alexander VI prepared to attack Milan. Ludovico (Milanese ruler) appealed for help from the French, and once the French were brought in they began to seize Italian land. Charles entered Italy with little resistance because Girolamo Savonarola had convinced people that the king’s arrival was divine vengeance for their sins. Savonarola was later executed, once people realized that Charles VIII was an invader.
Unites Venice, Milan, the Papal States, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain against France
Secures Papal States
Pope Julius II, Ferdinand of Aragon, Emperor Maximilian, and Venice
Luther- God is all you need