The Evolution of Various Formats of Information Resources

Events

Cave paintings 30,000 BC

30,000 BC

Clay Tablets 9000 BC

9000 BC

Prehistoric Mesopotamia used small marked clay tokens/tablets as a method for accounting.

Silk Scrolls 3000 BC

3000 BC

Chinese

Chinese Slat Books 3000 BC

3000 BC

Papyrus 3000 BC

3000 BC - 1100

Papyrus scrolls were used for writing. Ancient Egyptians used inside of the papyrus reed was cut into strips and layered the first vertically then horizontally and then pressed and allowed to dry. The natural gum from the reed allowed the strips to stick together forming a sheet.

Wax Tablets 3000 BC

3000 BC

Codices 150-450 BC

150 BC - 450

The use of codices (manuscripts bound together by a cover), developed by the Romans, replaces the use of the scrolls

Parchment 100

100

Developed in Turkey.
Parchment (made from animal skins) replaces papyrus as the main writing surface in the western world.

Chinese invent paper 105

105

Scriptoriums and Illuminated manuscripts 400-1400

400 - 1400

Woodblock printing in China 618-1279

618 - 1279

Paper is used outside of China 750

750

The Diamon Sutra published in China 868

868

The Diamon Sutra published in China is the first dated book made by block printing

Woodblock printing goes to Egypt 1000

1000

The first book printed in China from moveable type 1041

1041

German Prufening dedicatory inscription 1119

1119

The German Prufening dedicatory inscription was possibly the first use of the typographic principle in Europe which was made stamping individual wooden roman capitals into clay

Watermarked paper introduced 1276

1276

Watermarked paper introduced in Tuscany Italy

The production of books moved from monastic scriptoria to civilian professional scribes in cities 1300

1300

The production of books moved from monastic scriptoria to civilian professional scribes in cities

Woodblock printing in Europe 1400

1400

Gutenberg's moveable printing press 1448

1448

Gutenberg uses a lead-based moveable type to print indulgences (a type of receipt used by Catholics to seek forgiveness for their sins)

Cicero’s De Oratore is believed to be the first printed book 1465

1465

Cicero’s De oratore is believed to be the first printed book and was published in Subiaco Italy

The IL Monte Sancto di Dio is the first book with intaglio illustrations 1477

1477

The IL Monte Sancto di Dio is the first book with intaglio illustrations published in Florence.

First paperbacks developed in Italy 1500

1500

First cast-iron press 1798

1798

William Stanhope build the first cast-iron press which replaces wood presses

Steam-powered cylinder press 1802

1802

Friedrich Koenig develops the first steam-powered cylinder press 1802-1818

Fourdrinier paper making 1803

1803

Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier buy patent for Robert paper-making machine the basis for the Fourdrinier machine

Daguerreotype 1833

1833

Daguerreotype the earliest photographic process is invented by Louis Jacques-Mande Daguerre.

Microproduced novelty texts manufactured 1839

1839

The first commercially successful typewriter 1867

1867

The first commercially successful typewriter is invented in Milwaukee

Magnetic tape invented 1928

1928

Germany

The first successful electronic typewriter 1935

1935

The first successful electronic typewriter, the Electromatic is marketed by IBM

Modern Paperbacks published 1935

1935

Xerography 1938

1938

Chester F. Carlson invents Xerography

The ball point pen is invented 1940

1940

Laszlo Biro invents the ball point pen

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Intergrator and Computer) 1946

1946

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Intergrator and Computer) was the first general purpose computer

e-book invented 1960

1960

Microfiche invented 1961

1961

ARPANET 1969

1969

ARPANET, the precursor to the internet was developed in South California

The World Wide Web invented 1991

1991

The World Wide Web invented by Tim Berners-Lee is publicly launched

PDF (Portable Document Format) was launched 1993

1993

PDF (Portable Document Format) was launched by Adobe Systems

XML (Extensible Markup Language) is developed 1996

1996

XML (Extensible Markup Language) is developed

e-book becomes more widespread 2000

2000

3D Printing machines 2003

2003

3D Printing machines (the process of making three dimensional objects from a digital file) begin to be used and sold

First modern e-reader is released 2004

2004

Sony Libre, the first modern e-reader is released