Period Two Timeline


Cyrus the Great

576 BC - 530 BC

Cyrus the great was a very important figure in the development of empires. Cyrus was the founder of the Persian empire which is one of the most well known empires of todays history. He also was the first leader to permit people to keep their own personal cultures. He united lands that would lead to mass trade and cultural diversity. This relates to the 2.1 and 2.2 key concepts.

Siddartha Guatama

563 BCE - 483 BC

More commonly known as Buddha, Siddartha Guatama is the founder of Buddhism. Buddha was born in a very wealthy indian family, but one day he said he saw a lot of suffering. In order to put and end to the suffering he saw around him he left everything he had to go on a spiritual journey to find a answer to how he could end suffering. In doing this he created a new religion that is still popular in the world today and effected many of the countries of its time. Buddhism created a new kind of equality that people had never had in other religions and it was very attractive to the poor and low casted people. This idea relates to key concept 2.1.

Achaemenid Dynasty

558 B.C.E. - 330 B.C.E.

The Achaemenid empire is the one of the largest and most amazing empires of its time. It was especially known for its mix of cultures and strong military power. This empire will be the beginning to tolerance towards culture and will promote better types of government and new ideas in empires that follow it . Many of the empires that come after the Persian empire such as the Roman and Han empires will take ideas of order and culture to create there own system. This large empire would also allow trade to flourish and communication to become easier due to the big amount of roads and public works. This dynasty relates to key concept 2.3 and 2.2.


551 BCE - 479 BCE

Confucius was a very important person when it came to the Chinese religion and social structure. He is the founder of the confucian religion that helped keep many Chinese dynasties together. The morals of the Confucius religion were to do as your father said and to respect all elders. The father of the people became the emperor, so this new way of life was holding the empire together and preventing rebellion. People took these rules very seriously and lived by them. This relates to the 2.1 key concept.

Roman Republic

509 BC - 27 BC

The Roman republic was the first form of government that provided the people with a true say in government. It was run very similar to many modern day countries today. Though only men were allowed to vote, the republic was a step up from the Persian form of government. However the Roman Republic still took a lot of ideas and concepts from the Persians to better themselves. The Romans were tolerant of different cultures, very powerful and very good at conquering new lands. This relates back to key concept 2.2.

Founding of the Roman Republic

509 BCE

The founding of the Roman Republic will always be very important because it was the beginning of democracy. This government style would open doors to more equality in all people. Since more people had a say in their government many people were educated which led to and increase in literacy and scientific findings. Allowing a population to all participate in their government promoted equality and education, being smart became reachable even by the lower classes. One could say that this type of government made the human race more intelligent and created more leaders than before. This relates to the 2.2 key concept.

Greco-Persian Wars

499 BCE - 449 BCE

The Greco-Persian wars were a series of wars between the greek city-states and the Persian empire. At the time Persia was quickly expanding into the greek island and the greek islands rebelled against the Empire before it could conquer them. The greeks even made a deal with a local place that was occupied by the Persians to rebel against them at the same time. These wars prevented the Persians from slowly ruining the greek culture and allowing Greece to unite and become more powerful. This relates to key concept 2.2.


469 bc - 399 bc

Socrates was the wisest man in Rome during his time. Though all his personal recordings are lost many of his students documented his teachings. His most famous student Plato wrote many things about him and used him as a role model for his success. Socrates liked to teach his students by asking questions instead of giving answers. He liked letting his students find the answer for themselves. This is something that modern teachers still do today and it changed the way philosophers Taught in Roman society. This relates to key concept 2.1.

Peloponnesian Wars

431 BCE - 404 BCE

The Peloponnesian Wars were a series of wars that were fought between Athens and Sparta. These wars proved to be very important because they helped weaken Greece just before Alexander the great was going to conquer them. This allowed for alexander to unify a very large amount of land that would be connected by roads over time. Connecting this land would allow an increase in trade and it would allow culture to flourish. This relates back to key concept 2.3.


428 BC - 348 BC

Plato was a student of Socrates and was a very accomplished philosopher. He infuenced much of Rome and his works stayed in the roman society for around 2,400 years after his death. Plato opened Athens first Academy ad taught his own classes there. His school would continue to run long after his death and his ideas would remain present in roman society forever. Many of his students would later become famous philosophers just as he did. Plato had a huge impact on another very famous philosopher; Aristotle. This relates to key concept 2.1.


384 BC - 322 BC

Aristotle joined Plato's Academy when he was eighteen years old. Here Aristotle learned about math, physics, biology, medicine, logic, and other topics. After Plato had died Aristotle left Athens and began to tutor Alexander the Great, who would later conquer the greek islands and the Persian empire. Teaching Alexander made it possible for Aristotle to do many things. He create a large library full of books on all different topics. His ideas and concepts largely shaped the Roman society and influenced a leader that would conquer that whole area and more. Aristotle deeply effected the views of the roman people about different topics. This relates to concept 2.1.

Alexander the Great

356 BC - 323 BC

Alexander the Great was one of the most impressive conquerors of his time. In only eighteen years he was able to unite the greek isles and the whole Persian empire into one big empire. However, this empire would dissolve just after his death because of his failure to choose an heir. So after his death the empire would split into three different kingdoms. These kingdoms would be run by the generals of Alexander the great who fought over the countries after his abrupt death. This relates to key concept 2.2.

Mauryan dynasty

322 BCE - 185 BCE

The Mauryan Dynasty was an dynasty that deeply effected the spread of Buddhism. Since it was located in India it was already a bit effected by buddhism. During the reign of king Ashoka buddhism was picked up by the king after he killed many people after a rebellion. Feeling bad about his actions Ashoka then converted to buddhism, and spent a lot of his time spreading the faith. This relates to key concept 2.1.


304 bc - 232 bc

Ashoka was an emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty that was very important to the spread of Buddhism. Before he was buddhist, Ashoka killed thousands of rebelling people. After this blood bath Ashoka felt troubled about the death he had caused and decided to convert to buddhism and promote peace. Ashoka then spent a lot of his time spreading the religion and spent envoys and missionaries across the globe to promote buddhism. This relates to key concept 2.1.

Shi Haungdi

259 BCE - 210 BCE

Shi Huangdi was a very important emperor in Chinese history. He succeeded in unifying all of China and creating some of the best engineering feats the world has ever seen. Though Shi Huangdi was a very accomplished ruler he was very strict. He believed in a code called legalism, which were a set of very strict rules with harsh punishments for those who broke them. Shi Huangdi would promote the concepts of legalism and they would be used ages after his reign. This relates to key concept 2.1 and 2.2.

Qin Dynasty

221 BC - 207 BC

The Qin dynasty was the first Chinese government to be completely unify china. During this dynasty the emperor Shi Huangdi contributed much to the Chinese country. By standardizing the Chinese writing, building public works, and standardizing currency Shi Huandi was able to greatly increase the Chinese economy. This increase would greatly benefit the dynasties that followed. This relates to key concept 2.2.

Han dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

The Han dynasty was one of the longest and most important Chinese dynasties. The major accomplishment that makes the Han dynasty special was its silk road. Though the silk road was not fully developed during the Han dynasty it still impacted the trade of following countries. The silk road would continue to benefit traders for centuries to come, during the following dynasties. This relates to key concept 2.3.


100 BCE - 650 AD

The Axum empire was a very big trading nation of its time. Because of its location, the Axum empire made it very to trade good. People could take ships filled with goods from places across the world and trade in the Axum port. This influenced the trade and economy in the area and connected the empire to other places. This relates to key concept 2.3.


63 BC - 14 AD

Augustus was the first emperor of the the Roman empire. He was the first person that caused the government to switch from a republic to an empire. During his reign he nearly doubled the size of the empire. He used his military power and intelligence to do this and started the Romans on a path that lead to the Pax Romana. Which was a time of peace and stability for the romans. This relates to key concept 2.2.

Pax Romana

27 BC - 180 CE

The Pax Romana was a time were romans were in a very stable and peaceful situation. This time lasted about 208 years and allowed roman culture to flourish. During this time the population was also estimated to grow to about 70 million people. Rome also expanded significantly during this time, and many people were entertained by games that the public were allowed to attend. This relates to key concept 2.1.


1 BCE - 30 AD

Jesus was the founder of the very well known religion of Christianity. Though jesus started a new religion he was Jewish before he started christianity. Though his intentions seemed to be good he was killed by the Romans after he was heard talking about the kingdom of god. Though he was most likely referring to a spiritual place, the Roman officers believed he was trying to found a new kingdom that would then oppose Rome. Jesus started a very important religion that would be brought through the dark ages and into modern times. This religion influenced and impacted much of history. This relates to key concept 2.1.

Yellow turban rebellion

184 AD - 204 AD

The yellow turban rebellion was a rebellion of lower class people that last for about 21 years. This rebellion happen under the reign of emperor Ling. The reason for rebellion was mostly the high taxes and famine that were being put on the lower class. Most of these people were also taoists, which in turn meant they believed that there should be less of a government. This rebellion weakened the internals of the Han government and hastened the its collapse. This relates to key concepts 2.1 and 2.2.

Mayan Civilization

250 AD - 900 AD

Christianity becomes official state religion of Roman empire

313 AD

Christianity became the official state religion of Rome during the reign of Constantine. Constantine was said to have seen how many christians were in his empire and decide to convert himself. This deeply impacted the religion because it was finally legal. This allowed the religion to spread to the higher classes and grow as a whole. The religion also became more standardized after it became and official religion, this also promoted it and made it look better to potential converters. This relates to key concept 2.1.

Gupta Dynasty

320 CE - 550 CE

The Gupta dynasty was a very prosperous time for india. The people were sent to religous school were they could learn to read, right, mathematics, medicine, physics, languages, literature and lead about their religion. Their we buddhist and Hindu schools throughout the empire. This attracted people from other places that wanted to learn, and it improved the literacy of the citizens drastically. This relates to key concept 2.1.

Beginning of Trans-Saharan trade

476 CE

Trans-Saharan trade is when people travel across the sahara desert to trade. The Romans would protect travelers by lining trade routes with small outposts were they could rest and have water. This allowed more trade to flow from different places and made the South Africa countries more available for trade. This relates to key concept 2.3.

Collapse of the western Roman empire

476 CE

The collapse of the Roman empire triggered many events that were very necessary to the development of the modern world. When the Romans lost their empire to the Germanic people from the north, they adopted many of the Roman cultures. However, they still kept many of their own culture. The mix of these two cultures would blend to become medieval Europe. This relates to key concept 2.1.