The Faiyum Neolithic represents the earliest known fully agricultural economy in Kmt. (Grain silos, animal husbandry, hunting and fishing, stone megalith in Nabta Playa, world's earliest known astronomy.)
The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt during the Predynastic Era. It flourished between 4400 and 4000 BCE, and might have already emerged by 5000 BCE. It was first identified in El-Badari, Asyut.
About forty settlements and six hundred graves have been located. Social stratification has been inferred from the burying of more prosperous members of the community in a different part of the cemetery. The Badarian economy was based mostly on agriculture, fishing and animal husbandry. Tools included end-scrapers, perforators, axes, bifacial sickles and concave-base arrowheads. Remains of cattle, dogs and sheep were found in the cemeteries. Wheat, barley, lentils and tubers were consumed. Homes consisted of furniture, pottery, dishes, cups, bowls, combs, and were rectangular.
Merimde culture (also Merimde Beni-Salame) was a Neolithic culture which corresponds in its later phase to the Faiyum A culture and the Badari cultures in Predynastic Egypt (embryonic confederated state).
Merimde shows a sequence of occupations which lasted almost a millennium according to some estimates. Artifacts such as ceramics were quite primitive during phase I —a phase characterized by a light occupation. Eiwanger documented that storage areas appeared during phase II when the intensity of the occupation increased.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the Merimde economy was dominated by agriculture although some fishing and hunting were practiced to a lesser degree. The settlement consisted of small huts made of wattle and reed with a round or elliptical ground plan. Merimde pottery lacked rippled marks.
Burials had unique characteristics, different from those practiced in Upper Egyptian Predynastic Egypt and later Dynastic Egypt. There were no separate areas for cemeteries and the dead were buried within the settlement in a contracted position in oval pits without grave goods and offerings.
Social stratification, abstract writing, elaborate burials; calendar developed, advanced architecture, cities.
Naqada I (about 4400–3500 BC)
black-topped and painted pottery
trade with Nubia, Western Desert oases and Eastern Mediterranean
obsidian from Ethiopia
Naqada II (about 3500–3200 BC)
this culture represented throughout Egypt
first marl pottery, and metalworking
Naqada III (about 3200–3000 BC)
more elaborate grave goods
National Federation Period. Progress in all technologies along w/ advances in science. Large scale architecture; writing/engineering and administration. Written language in place by 3600+ BCE.
Earliest pyramidal structures built, first architectural complex made entirely in dressed stone blocks.
African federational decentralizations. Separation into several political units; different local styles developed. At its apex, Kmt civilization was crisscrossed by an intricate federation of 42 centralized African states. This was the first national federation in human history.
Unification of Kmt under Mentuhotep. Focus was on solidifying the federation.
Hyksos invaded and formed their own dynasty, the 15th Dynasty. Eventually, Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and Ahmose waged war against the Hyksos and expelled Khamudi, their last king, from Egypt.
Extensive racial/ethnic intermixing in the Delta caused increased diversification of the Kemetic population and dilution of culture. Political rupture, Hyksos invade and take control of lower Kmt. Theban rulers gain strength in upper Kmt.
Nubia incorporated into Kmt; Thutmose III, Hatshepsut, Rameses II; ran out Hittites; period of nationalism and imperialism.
End of indigenous rulership. Successive invasions (Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Arabs)
Peraa Taharqa ruled as one of Kmt's last indigenous rulers.
After forty years of relative security, Nubian control—and Egypt's peace—were broken by an Assyrian invasion which occurred ca. 671 B.C.E. For the next eight years, Egypt was the battleground between Nubia and Assyria. A brutal Assyrian invasion in 663 B.C. finally ended Nubian control of the country.
After the Greek victory at Marathon in 490 BC, the Egyptians revolted (in 484 and again in 460 BC) with the help of the Athenians, but unsuccessfully. Later Persian kings were not as strong, and in 404 BC Egypt succeeded in becoming independent.
Alexander the Great conquered Egypt as part of his takeover of the Persian Empire.
Christianity emerged as a sect from within Judaism, fermented as a religious protest movement communicated via oral tradition against Roman oppression, corruption, injustice and slavery.
Eusébio Pamphili, Bishop de Cesareia, mandated/commissioned by Roman Constantine, stitched together an eclectic corpus from the 27 versions of what became called the New Testament. The Christian New Testament was written in the first century CE initially in the common Greek koine, the language of Greek imperialism spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity.
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325. This first ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. It was presided by Hosius of Corduba, a bishop from the West.
Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the nature of the Son of God and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law.
The Byzantine empire failed to unify Christendom.
By 350 CE Christians agreed on all the books of their New Testament.
During the decline of the Roman empire, Rome joined Christianity but then later co-opted it, organized and wrote the New Testament canon. It was promoted as the official state religion of the Roman Empire (380 CE)
Vulgate is the first Latin translation of the bible.
Several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations. Shortly after Muhammad's death, the Quran was compiled by those of his companions who recorded those revelations. The Quran most likely existed in scattered written form during Muhammad's lifetime. Early commentaries and Islamic historical sources support the above-mentioned understanding of the Quran's early development. [Encyclopedia of Islam. Facts On File. pp. 570–74]
During it's development, Islam accumulated elements of primordial Arab religions along with monotheism and remnants of Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity.
When Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, died in 632 the new religion had already gathered a number of impressive victories on the battlefield. The armies of Islam quickly and easily conquered the Arabian peninsula before moving on to take the homelands of their various neighbors. Marching out of Arabia in 639 they entered non-Arab Egypt; 43 years later they reached the shores of the Atlantic; and in 711 they invaded Spain. In just 70 years they had subdued the whole of North Africa, instituting a new order. This conquest, from the Nile to the Atlantic, was more complete than anything achieved by previous invaders and the changes it wrought proved permanent.
7th century war between the Arabs and the Europeans occurred in the African delta region for the control of Kmt. Indigenous Africans were defeated on the sidelines - sporadically fighting and unpaid mercenaries for which ever organized invader enlisted them.
The failure of the Byzantine empire to unify Christendom resulted in the East/West Catholic Orthodox rift.
The Haitian Revolution has often been described as the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. Slaves initiated the rebellion in 1791 and by 1803 they had succeeded in ending not just slavery but French control over the colony. The Haitian Revolution, however, was much more complex, consisting of several revolutions going on simultaneously. These revolutions were influenced by the French Revolution of 1789, which would come to represent a new concept of human rights, universal citizenship, and participation in government.
The Berlin Conference, also known as the Congo Conference (German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.
The Balfour Declaration (dated 2 November 1917) was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland. It's purpose was to confirm support from the British government for the establishment in Palestine of a "national home" for the Jewish people.
Carbon-14 was discovered by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley.
Between Nov. 29, 1947, and Jan. 1, 1949, Zionist terrorists depopulated and destroyed 531 Palestinian villages and towns, killing more than 13,000 Palestinians and expelling more than 750,000, approximately half the population. UN General Assembly resolution 181, adopted on November 29, 1947, purported to divide Palestine between the indigenous inhabitants and European colonists who arrived seeking to occupy and exploit Palestine and create an exclusive Jewish homeland. Under the UN plan, European Jews were granted more than fifty six per cent of historical Palestine while the native Palestinians, who owned ninety three per cent of the territory, were offered less than forty four percent of their own land. The partition vote was based on a UN Special Committee (UNSCOP) recommendation to divide the country into three parts: a Palestinian state with a population of 735,000, of which 725,000 were Palestinians and 10,000 Jews; a new Jewish state comprised of 499,000 Jews and 407,000 Palestinians, creating a new state with roughly less than sixty per cent Jewish majority.