Ch. II Western Cultural History (Copy)

To include artists, music styles/periods, composers, historic & political events, & scientific discoveries

All Events

753 BC, Rome Founded by Romulus and Remus

753 BC

509 BC Roman Republic Established

509 BC

(Miller 51)

479-431 BC Golden Age of Greece

479 BC - 431 BC

469-399 BC, Socrates

Approx. 469 BC - Approx. 399 BC

c. 460-377 BC Hippocrates (Father of Medicine)

Approx. 460 BC - Approx. 377 BC

384-322 BC, Aristotle, "The Father of Logic"

Approx. 384 BC - Approx. 322 BC

(Schaeffer 43)
Greek philosopher. Emaphasized importance of particulars over absolutes or ideals.
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTmVunaeEUt4XwmkltroV9Q2B_5-E07IyZ5RlhDYenNO2-3e6B8

384-322 BC Aristotle (Geocentricity)

Approx. 384 BC - Approx. 322 BC

First to conceive of geocentricity, which remained popular theory for 1400 yeas! Greek Philosopher

350 BC Aristotle Formed Spontaneous Generation Hypothesis

Approx. 350 BC

Wiles

287-212 BC Archimedes

Approx. 287 BC - Approx. 212 BC

Law of Buoyancy; value of pi; Advantage of Levers
Syracuse, Sicily

279-206 BC, Chrysippus, Laid groundwork for symbolic logic

Approx. 279 BC - Approx. 206 BC

146 BC, Rome Conquers Greece

146 BC

70-19 BC Virgil, Author of "The Aeneid"

70 BC - 19 BC

44 BC Senate Appoints Caesar Augustus, Dictator Perpetuus (dictator for life)

44 BC

End of Roman Republic after 479 years.
(Miller 52)

12 BC Caesar Augustus as Octavian/Potifex Maximus

12 BC - 14

(Schaeffer 22)

4 BC-0 AD Jesus Christ born in Bethlehem of Judea

4 BC - 0 AD

Christian era begins
(Miller 52)

90-168 AD Ptolemy (Popularized Geocentric Theory)

Approx. 90 AD - Approx. 168 AD

284-305 Emperor Diocletian, Persecutor of Christians, Exiles John to Patmos Is.

284 - 305

313 Constantine Legalizes Christianity

313

339-397, Ambrose of Milan

339 - 397

(Schaeffer 30)
Emphasized true biblical Christianity.
(Schaeffer 31)
Bishop of Milan 374-397
Introduced antiphonal psalmody & singing of hymns.

339-397 Ambrose, Bishop of Milan

339 - 397

Writes antiphonal psalmodies(Schaeffer 90)
Emphasized a true biblical Christianity. Introduced antiphonal psalmody &hymns to the West, along w/ the Ambrosian chant. (Smith xvi)

354-430 Augustine

354 - 430

(Schaeffer 30)
Emphasized biblical Christianity

400-500, "Beowulf"--Scandinavia

400 - 500

450-1500 The Middle Ages

450 - 1500

476 AD Western Roman Empire Ends

476 AD

Lasted 506 yrs. (30 BC-476 AD)
(Miller 52)

480-547, Monastic Orders Organized Around Rule of Benedict

480 - 547

(Schaeffer 31)

527-565, Justinian Rules

527 - 565

(Schaeffer 31)
Built Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (consecrated in 537)

550-1100 Byzantine Art

550 - 1100

(Schaeffer 31)
Characterized by formalized, stylized, symbolic masaics & icons.

590-604, Pope Gregory I

590 - 604

(Schaeffer 44)
Introduced Gregorian Change (impersonal, mystical)

590-604, Pope Gregory I Reigned

590 - 604

Had all the modes of worship of the Western church arranged into a systematic whole, called the Gregorian chant. (Smith, xvii)

742-814, Charlemagne

742 - 814

(Schaeffer 43)
Son of Pippin, became King of the Frnaks in 768 & crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in rome on Christmas Day 800.

800, Beowulf composed

800

British epic takes place in Scandinavia

1066-1200 Romanesque architecture popular

1066 - 1200

(Schaeffer 46)
Rounded arches, thick walls, dim interiors

1140-1400 Gothic architecture popular

1140 - 1400

(Schaeffer 47)
Pointed arches, high windows, clerestory (windows set high in the walls), flying buttresses.

1182-1226, Saint Francis

1182 - 1226

(Schaeffer 36)
Recognizing the corrupting effect of wealth, forbade his followers to receive money.

1225-1274, St. Thomas Aquinas

1225 - 1274

(Schaeffer 43)
Placed revelation & human reason on an equal footing.
(Scaheffer 51)
A Dominican monk. Taught man was fallen, not his intellect. Thus, man could rely on his own human wisdom & people were free to mix teachings of Bible w/ teachings of non-Christian philosophers.

1265-1321, Dante

1265 - 1321

(Schaeffer 58)
Author of "Divine Comedy;" one of first to write in the vernacular. Mixed Christina & class'l. pagan world in his work. Demonstrated 2 views of love: sensual (lower story, physical) & spiritual (upper story/ideal).

1267-1337, Giotto

1267 - 1337

(Schaeffer 57)
Can see in his "The Last Judgment" how he was 1st to give nature a more proper place and painted people as real people yet 'larger than life.' Designed the bell tower, the Campanile, next to the cathedral in Florence near the end of his lifetime.

1320-1384, John Wycliffe

1320 - 1384

(Schaeffer 56)
Oxford professor; taught that the Bible was the supreme authority.
Produced his English translation of the Bible.

1350-1600 The Renaissance

1350 - 1600

1369-1415, John Huss

1369 - 1415

(Schaeffer 56)
Influenced by Wycliffe. Spoke out, affirming the Bible as the only final authority.

1377-1446, Brunelleschi

1377 - 1446

(Schaeffer 62)
His architecture shifted emphasis from Gothic back to classical. Built churches in Florence & the Foundling Hospital (1st Renaissance building). His cathedral dome in Florence is one of the wonders of the world, a great mathematical feat.

1380 Sir Gawain & the Green Knight

1380

(Greenholt 45)
Middle English poem from late 14th century, written by unknown British author (perhaps "Perl" Poet).
Set in Camelot of King Arthur & the Round Table.

1386-1395, "Canterbury Tales" by Chaucer

1386 - 1395

England

1390-1441, Jan van Eyck

1390 - 1441

(Schaeffer 66)
Greatest Flemish (N. Europe) painter. "Adoration of the Lamb"--a real landscape communicating the real truth of Scripture. Christ, sacrificed, but alive!

1400-1600 Age of Exploration

1400 - 1600

1401-1428, Masaccio

1401 - 1428

(Schaeffer 65)
Father of Renaissance painting. Gave his work a true-to-life quality. First painter to consistently use central perspective, to bring light into paintings from naturally correct direction, & to paint people w/ their feet standing on the ground. Portrayed Adam & Eve biblically--real people in a real world (68).

1416-1480, Foquet

1416 - 1480

(Schaeffer 71)
Painter of "The Red Virgin," a picture of the king's mistress, Agnes Sorel painted as Mary w/ all the holiness removed...along w/ its meaning. https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcREwB-cdMNmzlg1T4G2hObL3pzsyMwbPJu9UZPk8QUu3Nm8wexa

1434. Arnolfini Wedding, by Jan van Eyck

1434

(Strickland 40)
Jan van Eyck, 1390-1441

1434-1494, Medicis Rule in Florence

1434 - 1494

(Schaeffer 72)

1452-1519, Martin Luther

1452 - 1519

(Schaeffer 80)

1452-1519, Leonardo da Vinci

1452 - 1519

(Schaeffer 72)
Anticipated where humanism would end. "Man beginning w/ himself would never be able to come to meaning on the basis of mathematics...one only ends w/ mechanics...Everything, including man, is the machine."

1455 Gutenburg's Printing Press--Germany

Approx. 1455

1471-1528, Albrecht Durer

1471 - 1528

(Schaeffer 94)
Wrote passionate diary entries regarding Martin Luther. (Schaeffer 96)

1473-1543 Nicholas Copernicus (Heliocentric Theory)

Approx. 1473 - Approx. 1543

1543 "On the Revolution" on Heliocentric Theory is published at Copernicus' death.

1475-1564, Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

(Schaeffer 71)
Sculpted men "tearing themselves out of the rock." "Man will make himself great...by himself will tear himself out of nature & free himself from it..."

1478, The Spanish Inquisition

1478

1483-1520, Raphael

1483 - 1520

(Schaeffer 52)
Painted "The School of Athens" w/ Plato pointing one finger upward & Aristotle w/ his fingers spread wide & down toward the earth. Plato valued absolutes or ideals, while Aristotle valued particulars.

1483-1546, Martin Luther incorporates chorale singing into worship

1483 - 1546

Helps to sow the seeds of a musical renaissance in Germany. Wrote "A Mighty Fortress is Our God." (Smith, xvii)

1501, 1st Music Printed with Movable Type

1501

(Schaeffer 68)
by Ottaviano Petrucci in Venice

1504, Michelangelo's "David" Sculpted

1504

(Schaeffer 72)
Uncircumcised, humanistic ideal of man. Man is great!

1509-1564, John Calvin prohibs singing of texts not in Bible

1509 - 1564

(Smith, xvii)

1509-1564, Calvin

1509 - 1564

(Schaeffer 80)
Addressed his "Institutes of the Christian Religion" in 1536 to the same Francis I that brought Leonardo to France.

1514, "Saint Jerome" by Albrecht Durer

1514

MMA, London

1517-1618 Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1618

(CC History Card #94)

1517, Martin Luther Nails 85 Theses to church door in Wittenberg

October 31, 1517

Just 2 yrs. before Leonardo's death.

1523, Zwingli led Zurich to break w/ Rome

1523

(Schaeffer 81)

1534, Henry VIII Breaks w/ Rome

1534

(Schaeffer 81)

1536, Calvin Writes "Institutes of the Christian Reliegion"

1536

(Schaeffer 80)

1546-1601 Tycho Brahe

Approx. 1546 - Approx. 1601

Prague, Czechoslovakia, rich gold nose

1571-1630 Johannes Kepler (3 Laws of Planetary Motion)

Approx. 1571 - Approx. 1630

Austria to Prague, Caechoslavakia

1585-1672, Heinrich Shutz, Greatest German Composer of mid-17th century

1585 - 1672

One of the most important musical figures of the Baroque period, culminating in the work of Bach & Handel. (Smith, xvii)

1596-1650 Rene Descartes

Approx. 1596 - Approx. 1650

Father of Modern Philosophy (Schaeffer 152)

1600-1700 Baroque Period

1600 - 1700

(Veith 67)

1606-1669, Rembrandt

1606 - 1669

(Schaeffer 98)
Neither idealized art nor demeaned it; he lived in the midst of God's world & did not need to make himself God. Rather, he could use God's world & its form in his painting(100).

1608-1674, John Milton

1608 - 1674

Poet & political writer--Pressed case a/g Charles I & the Royalists. Imprisoned briefly after Charles II was restored to the throne of England in 1660. Published "Paradise Lost" in 1667.

1628-1688 John Bunyan

1628 - 1688

1642-1649 "The Scarlet Letter" by N. Hawthorne

1642 - 1649

Set in Puritan Boston. Written before the Salem Witch Trials.

1642-1727 Isaac Newton (Principia Mathematics, Gravity)

Approx. 1642 - Approx. 1727

England

1659-1694, Setting of "Robinson Crusoe"

1659 - 1694

published in 1719

1667-1745 Jonathan Swift, Irish satirist

1667 - 1745

1667, Paradise Lost Published

1667

(Greenholt 49)
By John Milton (1608-1674)

1670, Anton van Leeuwenhoeck Crafts 1st Microscope, Discovers Microorganisms

Approx. 1670

(Wile & Durnell 37)

1678 & 1684 "The Pilgrim's Progress" published in 2 parts

1678

1685-1759, Handel

1685 - 1759

(Schaeffer 90)

1685-1750, Johann Sebastian Bach

1685 - 1750

His music was a direct result of the Reformation culture & the biblical Christianity of the time. "There would have been no Bach had there been no Luther." (Schaeffer 92)
Core of his creative work is a treasure of cantatas that make up more than half of his music. (Smith xviii)

1692 Salem Witch Trials

1692

1694-1778 Voltaire, French philosopher

Approx. 1694 - Approx. 1778

"Father of Enlightenment" (Schaeffer 120)

1700-1800 Neoclassicism

1700 - 1800

(Veith 69)

1700-1800 The Enlightment Age

1700 - 1800

1707-1788, Charles Wesley, Hymn Writer & Preacher

1707 - 1788

(Schaeffer 93)

1711-1776 David Hume

Approx. 1711 - Approx. 1776

(Schaeffer 156)

1712-1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Approx. 1712 - Approx. 1778

(Schaeffer 154)
"Man was born free, but everywhere he is in chains!"

1726 "Gulliver's Travels" published

1726

1732-1809, Franz Joseph Haydn

1732 - 1809

Inspired by "The Messiah," he wrote his masterpiece "The Creation" in his later years. Includes "The Heavens Are Telling," his setting of verses from Ps. 19. (Smith xviii)

1734-1741 The First Great Awakening

1734 - 1741

1741, Handel composes "The Messiah"

1741

(Schaeffer 92)

1741-1827 Charles Wilson Peale

1741 - 1827

(72 Strickland)
"The Peale Family" 1770-1773

1754-1763 French & Indian War

1754 - 1763

1756-1791, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

1756 - 1791

Perhaps the most purely musical composer, did a magnificent arrangement of the shortest of all psalms, the praise-filled Ps. 117. (Smith xviii)

1765 The Stamp Act

1765

1769-1821, Napoleon Bonaparte

1769 - 1821

(Schaeffer 121)

1770-1827, Ludwig van Beethoven

1770 - 1827

At one time, a rebellious pupil of Haydn. His music was the bridge from the Classical period to Romanticism. In his setting of verses from Ps. 19, "The Heavens are Telling," one can almost see the stars shining. (Smith xviii)

1770-1773 "The Peale Family"

1770 - 1773

Neoclassical
(Strickland, 72)

1770 Carl Linnaeus Develops 5-Kingdom Classification System

Approx. 1770

1775-1817 Jane Austen

1775 - 1817

(Greenholt 63)

1776-1789 The Articles of Confederation

1776 - 1789

1778-1867 Michael Faraday (Electromagnetism)

Approx. 1778 - Approx. 1867

1780-1820 Neoclassic Art

1780 - 1820

(68 Strickland)

1781-1848, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , Advanced symbolic logic

Approx. 1781 - Approx. 1848

1789-1799 French Revolution

1789 - 1799

1791-1872 Samual FB Morse (Telegraph)

Approx. 1791 - Approx. 1872

1844 Telegraph; Morse code; portrait artist

1800-1900 Romanticism

1800 - 1900

(Veith 71)

1804 Napolean Crowned Emperor of France

1804

1806-1873 John Stuart Mill, Pioneer of Induction Theories

Approx. 1806 - Approx. 1873

1809-1847, Felix Mendelssohn

1809 - 1847

Early Romantic Jewish-Christian composer, who set many psalms to music. i.e. "Lift Thine Eyes to the Mountains" from Ps. 121 in his oratorio "Elijah." (Smith xviii)

1812-1870 Charles Dickens

1812 - 1870

(Greenholt 75)

1813 Pride & Prejudice published

1813

Originally written under the name "First Impressions," probably around 1799. Published anonymously at first. (Greenholt 63)

1816-1855 Charlotte Bronte

1816 - 1855

Published under masculine pseudonym, Curer Bell until 1848. (Greenholt 85)

1822-1884, Gregor Mendel, Father of Genetics

Approx. 1822 - Approx. 1884

(Wiles 227)
born in Austria

1825-1899, Johann Strauss, Jr.

1825 - 1899

(Smith 82)

1828-1910 Leo Tolstoy

1828 - 1910

Russian; Truth in literature

1833-1897, Johannes Brahms

1833 - 1897

German Classic-Romantic composer, whose music is inspired by a deep concern w/ man's mortal lot & his hope of heaven. (Smith xviii)

1835-1910 Samual Clemens/Mark Twain

1835 - 1910

Combines realistic dialogue & ordinary characters w/ social issues

1836 "The Oxbow" by Thomas Cole

1836

Romanticism
(Strickland 81)

1836-1910 Winslow Homer

1836 - 1910

Major American marine painter & watercolorist of all time.
(Strickland 85)

1844 Telegraph Invented

Approx. 1844

1847 Jane Eyre published

1847

(Greenholt 85)

1850-1900 Realism

1850 - 1900

(Strickland 83)

1859, A Tale of Two Cities published

1859

by Charles Dickens(Greenholt 75)

1860-1886 Impressionism

1860 - 1886

(Strickland 96)

1861 Battle of Fort Sumter-Civil War Starts

1861

1862-1918, Claude Debussy

1862 - 1918

Gift of Music

1862-1910 William S. Porter/ O. Henry

1862 - 1910

1863 Lincoln's Gettysburg Address

1863

1865 "Alice in Wonderland" published by Lewis Carroll

1865

(Greenholt, 117)

1867-1922 Marie Curie

Approx. 1867 - Approx. 1922

Discovered radium; 1st woman to win Nobel Price; brought X-rays to battlefield

1872-1970, Bertrand Russell, Modern Mathematical Logic

Approx. 1872 - Approx. 1970

British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic

1872 "Snap the Whip" by Winslow Homer

1872

Realism
(Strickland 85)

1879-1970 E.M. Forster

1879 - 1970

(Greenholt 103)

1879-1955 Albert Einstein

Approx. 1879 - Approx. 1955

German; General & Specific Theories of Relativity; 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics

1892-1983 Corrie ten Boom

1892 - 1983

"The Hiding Place"; The Netherlands

1896 Giacomoa Puccine writes "La Boheme"

1896

(Schaeffer 156)

1905-1980, Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialist

1905 - 1980

(Schaeffer 167)

1910-1997, Mother Teresa

1910 - 1997

1948 Mother Teresa began working in Calcutta with the Little Sisters of the Poor.

(Muggeridge, 154)

1911, GK Chesterton publishes 1st of 5 Father Brown books.

1911

Stories within "Favorite Father Brown Stories" are taken from "The Innocence of Father Brown" (1911) & "The Wisdom of Father Brown" (1914)

Francis Crick--Genetic determinism

Approx. 1916

(Schaeffer 230)

1924 "A Passage to India" published

1924

(Greenholt 103)

August 15, 1947 Britain Declares India Independent & Creates Pakistan

1947

(Bauer 329)

1962 Francis Crick & James Watson Break DNA Code

Approx. 1962

Receive Nobel Prize, 1962
Schaeffer 230

1971 "Something Beautiful for God" published

1971

published by Malcolm Muggeridge