History of Philosophers

Philosophers

Guan Zhong

Approx. 720 bce - Approx. 645 bce

Early state administrator in Qi. Helped centralize state power and develop taxes.

Thales of Miletus

Approx. 624 BCE - Approx. 546 BCE

Water was his first principle (everything was either literally water, or somehow composed of water)

Anaximander

Approx. 610 bc - Approx. 546 bc

First principle of Apeiron (the infinite). Earth is situated in free space, unsupported by anything, and stays in place because the possible directions of movement balance one another.

Anaximenes

Approx. 585 BCE - Approx. 528 BCE

First principle is air, but like Anaximander it is infinite.

Xenophanes

Approx. 570 bce - Approx. 475 bce

A poet who was critical of earlier poets, particularly their depiction of the gods and of morality. He believed that true knowledge could not be attained with regards to first principles of the cosmos or of the gods, but we could form true opinions about the world through observation.

Pythagoras

Approx. 570 bce - Approx. 490 bce

Advocated for a strict way of living.
Difficult to separate the thought of Pythagoras from the thoughts of his followers.

Heraclitus

Approx. 535 bce - Approx. 475 bce

Opposite qualities are held in the same object. Everything is somehow made of fire, or derived from fire. Everything is unified in one (although held in different objects).

Parmenides

Approx. 515 bce - Approx. 460 bce

Anaxagoras

Approx. 510 bce - Approx. 428 bce

Leucippus

Approx. 500 bce - Approx. 401 bce

Empedocles

Approx. 490 bce - Approx. 430 bce

Zeno of Elea

Approx. 490 bce - Approx. 430 bce

Protagoras

Approx. 490 bce - Approx. 420 bce

Gorgias

Approx. 485 bce - Approx. 380 bce

Socrates

Approx. 470 bce - Approx. 399 bce

Melissus of Samos

Approx. 470 bce - Approx. 420 bce

Dates unknown

Democritus

Approx. 460 bc - Approx. 370 bc

Hippocrates

Approx. 460 bce - Approx. 370 bce

Aristippus

Approx. 435 bce - Approx. 356 bce

Plato

Approx. 427 bce - Approx. 348 bce

Diogenes

Approx. 412 bce - 323 bce

Speusippus

Approx. 408 bce - Approx. 339 bce

Aristotle

Approx. 384 bce - Approx. 322 bce

Theophrastus

Approx. 371 bce - Approx. 287 bce

Pyrrho

Approx. 360 bc - Approx. 270 bc

Epicurus

341 bce - 270 bce

Arcesilaus

Approx. 316 bc - Approx. 241 bc

Chrysippus

Approx. 279 bce - Approx. 206 bce

Carneades

Approx. 214 bce - 128 bce

Cicero

106 bc - 43 bc

Lucretius

Approx. 99 bce - Approx. 55 bce

Seneca the Younger

Approx. 4 bce - 65 ad

Epictetus

Approx. 55 ad - 135 ad

Marcus Aurelius

121 ad - 180 ad

Galen

Approx. 129 ad - Approx. 200 ad

Sextus Empiricus

Approx. 160 ad - Approx. 210 ad

Rene Descartes

March 31, 1596 - February 11, 1650

Ancient Greek and Roman Events

Battle of Marathon

Approx. 490 BCE

Battle of Thermopylae

Approx. 480 bce

Chinese Events

Spring and Autumn Period

Approx. 771 BCE - Approx. 476 BCE

Early-Modern Europe