white and black laborers united against a common enemy - the planter elite that oppressed and terrorized white and black alike
Labeling Native Americans "savages" allows their removal to be less distasteful
A revolution effort led by Virginia landowner, unifies poor laborers and slaves, black and white, to attack the planter elite.
This quickens efforts to convert to systemic enslavement of Africans - particularly non-English speaking Africans who were less prone to communicate and therefore unite with the white indentured servants.
After Bacon's Rebellion, planter elites systematically privilege whites over their African co-laborers. White settlers are given greater access to Native American lands; white servants allowed to police slaves; barriers put in place to avoid competition of free labor with slave labor.
Now, poor whites have a stake in maintaining the racial caste system.
Slavery is disbanded but white supremacy endures. Convict laws and segregation instituted.
Convict laws overturned
13th Amendment - makes slavery illegal (except as punishment for crime)
Civil Rights Act of 1866 - full citizenship for freed slaves
14th Amendment - equal protection under the law
15th Amendment - right to vote regardless of race
KKK Acts - interference and violent infringement of right to vote a crime
Freedman's Bureau established
Public Education established in the South
Backlash against Reconstruction led by the KKK
vigilante and terrorist tactics used against Reconstructionist governments and local leaders
Federal Troops Withdraw in 1874
Funding withdrawn from Freedman's Bureau
Vagrancy and Convict laws reconstituted
Prisoners back into forced labor with stunning death rates
Compare to 0% in 1867
In 1980, fewer than 8% of Southern elected officials are African American
Of the three "post-Redeemer" options, the Populist party was briefly the most successful, combining the support of white and black poor and working class people.
However, with jobs ever more scarce, the conservative Southern party convinces whites that the freed slaves are responsible for the lack of jobs.
Jim Crow Laws begin to take hold, giving poor whites 'permission to hate' their black counterparts.
Northern whites begin to suspect that Jim Crow laws need to be reformed. This attitude arises from a combination of factors:
Some desegregation cases south as Smith v. Allwright and McLauren v. Oklahoma - the Supreme Court deems segregation unconstitutional
In light of the horror at Hitler's treatment of German Jews, Americans become uncomfortable at the treatment of blacks in the South.
Brown v. Board of Education the culmination of this effort - but violent backlash in the South halted efforts at desegregation.
Starts as opposition to the Civil Rights Movement in the South
"Conservatives argue that poverty was not caused by structural factors related to race and class but rather by culture - particularly black culture"
The New Jim Crow, p. 44
After success on the desegregation front, The Civil Rights Movement turns its efforts to attacking poverty. Again, people of all races begin to come together to demand more economic equality.
US Supreme Court upholds the denial of felons' right to vote.
$86 million - $1,026 million
At the same time, funding for education, prevention and treatment of drug abuse dramatically DECREASES
Reagan's campaign relies largely on racially coded language in order to win over poor southern whites (historically Democrats)
$33 million to $1,042 million
At the time he declares this war, less than 2% of the population views drugs as the #1 issue facing the US
5 year minimum for simple possession without intention to sell - for 1st time offenders.
Including (but not limited to)
federal student financial aid (added in 1998)