World Civilizations

This chart attempts to track the ages of major Empires, Kingdoms and Dynasties of the world. Civilization lengths are rarely precise and not meant to indicate importance or power. The age of Civilizations are valuable in this chart to track relative simultaneous existences, important historical dates and synergistic relationships. -- Rules to define the age of a Civilization: Move of Capital. Example: Move of Roman Capital from Rome to Byzantium. Change in government type. Example: Transition of Ottoman Caliphate to Republic of Turkey. Occupations resulting in permanent structural changes to administration of cities/region. Example: Korea Significant transitions in geographic location. -- Maps provided attempt to show maximum sphere of influence. However these are obviously highly debatable and are just meant to emphasis regional distribution and cultural impact. -- The Anatolian Peninsula is considered to be part of the Middle East.

World Events

Gunpower Created Under the Tang Dynasty

850 AD

Christopher Columbus Lands in the Carribean

1492 AD

Ferdinand Magellan Circumnavigates the Globe


African Civilizations

Old Kingdom of Egypt

2686 BC - 2181 BC

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

2055 BC - 1650 BC

New Kingdom of Egypt

1550 BC - 1077 BC

Kingdom of Kush

1070 BC - 350 AD



814 BC - 146 BC



Ptolemaic Kingdom

322 BC - 30 BC

Kingdom of Aksum

100 AD - 940 AD


Ghana Empire (Wagadou)

830 AD - 1240 AD

1240 AD: Ghana absorbed by the kingdom of Mali


Morocco (Berber and Arab Dynasties)

1060 AD - Present

1060 AD: Almorabid dynasty unites Morocco and annexes the Emirate of Sijilmasa and the Tamesna.

1549 AD: Saadi Arab dynasty begins reign over Morocco with a victory of the last Wattasids at the Battle of Tadla.

1549 AD: Saadi Arab dynasty begins reign over Morocco with a victory of the last Wattasids at the Battle of Tadla.

1912 AD: The tready of Fez divides Morocco into French and Spanish protectorates after the First Moroccan Crisis and the Agadir Crisis.

Present: King Mohammed VI presides over the Kingdom of Morocco.

MAP: Present Day Morocco

Benin Empire

1180 AD - 1897 AD

Mali Empire (Manden Kurufaba)

1230 AD - 1600 AD

1230 AD: Sundiata Keita defeats King Soumaoro at the Battle of Kirina and takes control of former Sosso states.

1600 AD: After the death of Mansa Mahmud Keita IV, the king's three sons fought for control of the kingdom. The region was divided and the kingdom fell.


Ethiopia (Solomonic Dynasty)

1270 AD - 1974 AD

1270 AD: Yekuno Amlak restores the Solomonic dynasty to power after deposing the Zagwe King Za-Ilmaknun

1974 AD: Civic unrest caused by economic troubles, famine and Eritrean separatist efforts lead to a coup by the Ethiopian army. Haile Selassie is removed from power and a socialist/military government is installed.

MAP: Ethiopia from 1960-1974:

Oyo Empire

1400 AD - 1896 AD

Songhai Empire

1464 AD - 1591 AD


Somalia (Majeerteen and Hobyo Sultanates)

1600 AD - 1924 AD

1600 AD: Majeerteen Sultanate established by Somali Majeerteen Dorad.

1889 AD: Boqor Osman signs treaty agreement with Italy making his kingdom an Italian Protectorate.

1927 AD: 1925 Benito Mussolini gives Italian Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi approval to overthrow the presiding Majeerteen and Hobyo Sultanates. Despite strong resistance, in December 1925 Italian troops overrun El Buur and Omar Samatar of the Hobyo Sultanate is forced to flee to Western Somaliland. Two years later Hersi Boqor, son of Boqor Osman, and his top staff are forced to retreat to Ethiopia. He would not recover the throne and thus terminated the reign of the Majeerteen Sultanate.

MAP: Italian Somaliliand showing the provinces administered by the Hobyo and Majeerteen Sultanates c. 1915 AD. The Benadir territory in the darker yellow was the only region administered exclusively by the Italians.


1600 AD - 1904 AD

Ashanti Empire

1670 AD - 1902 AD

American Civilizations


1400 BC - 350 BC

1400 BC: Distinctive Olmec sculptures and architecture appear alongside luxury artifacts and culinary items at Tenochtilan.

350 BC: Steep population decline attributed to ecological changes emerge between 400 and 350 BC. Environmental changes rendering the region unsuitable for agriculture and hunting or volcanic activity are the primary reasons for the depopulation.

MAP: Olmec Heartland ca. 600 BC

Teuchitlan Tradition

200 AD - 900 AD

Classical Mayan Civilization

250 AD - 950 AD

250AD: Semi-arbitrary beginning of an intellectual and artistic golden age. Urbanism and large-scale agrarianism flourish around several city-states highlighted by the great metropolis of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico.

950AD: Crumbling of the political system marked by the abandonment of cities, cessation of cultural works and agricultural collapse.

Toltec Empire

496 AD - 1122 AD

Zapotec Civilization

700 AD - 1521 AD

Tarascan State

1300 AD - 1530 AD

Inca Empire

1438 AD - 1533 AD

United States of America

1776 - Present

1776: Independence from British Empire

Present day map. Map chosen to show overseas territories. EEZs shown in light blue.

Asian Civilizations

Indus Valley Civilization (Mature Harappan)

2600 BC - 1700 BC

Maurya Empire

322 BC - 185 BC

Imperial China

221 BC - 1912 AD


209 BC - 93 AD

Pandyan Dynasty

500 AD - 1345 AD

Pre-Islamic Indonesia

600 AD - 1500 AD

Rough pre-Islamic peak empires of the Indonesian islands mainly focusing on Srivijaya, Singhasari and Majapahit periods.

600 AD: Srivijaya naval empire flourishes.

1500 AD: Majapahit power declines as Sultanate of Malacca rises.

Map of Majapahit Empire at its greatest extent.

Imperial House of Japan

660 AD - Present

Unified Korea

676 AD - 1910 AD

676 AD: Political unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Silla and Baekje) after annexation and successful war campaigns (supported by the Tang Dynsty) by the Silla Kingdom.

918 AD: King Taejo of Goryeo successfully overpowers Silla Kingdom and established new dynasty that lasts for 474 years.
1910 AD: Korea self-rule ends with Japanese occupation

Map of Goryeo after unification of the Later Three Kingdoms

Mewar Kingdom (Udaipur State)

734 AD - 1949 AD

Chola Empire

848 AD - 1279 AD

Mongol Empire

1206 AD - 1687 AD

1206 AD: Genghis Kahn proclaims "The Great Mongol State"

1687 AD: Collapse of Chagatai Khanate


1238 AD - 1932 AD

Combination of the Sukhothai, Ayutthaya and Rattanakosin kingdoms.

Mughal Empire

1526 AD - 1858 AD

1858 AD: Bahadur Shah II deposed by the British Empire

European Civilizations


800 BC - 600 AD

Greek Empire under Alexander


509 BC - 1453 AD

Byzantine Empire

330 AD - 1204 AD

330 AD: Constantine moves the seat of the Roman empire from Rome to Byzantium.
1204 AD: Sack of Constantinople.

Carolingian Empire (Frankish Empire)

481 AD - 843 AD

843 AD: Treaty of Verdun divides Frankish Empire among the three sons of Louis the Pious (son of Charlemange).

Portuguese Overseas

1415 AD - 1974 AD

1415 AD: Conquest of Ceuta

1974 AD: Carnation Revolution overthrows Estado Novo dictatorship and initiates withdrawl of Portugal from overseas colonies.

Spanish Empire

1474 AD - 1931 AD

1474 AD: Isabella I ascends to the throne after the death her half-brother Henry IV.

Habsburg Empire (Austrian Empire)

1526 - 1867

British Empire

1583 AD - Present

Russian Empire

1721 AD - 1917 AD

1721 AD: Declaration of Russian Empire by Peter I

1917 AD: Tsarist system overthrown by February Revolution

French Empire

1792 AD - Present

1792 AD: First Republic established during the French Revolution

Middle Eastern Civilizations


2500 BC - 605 BC

Akkadian Empire (Babylonia)

2334 BC - 2154 BC

Expanded under Hammurabi in the early 18th century BC


1600 BC - 1178 BC


1500 BC - 1155 BC


1200 BC - 539 BC

Kingdom of Lydia

1185 BC - 547 BC

Chaldean Empire

940 BC - 556 BC

Medes (Median Empire)

678 BC - 549 BC

Neo-Babylonian Empire

626 BC - 539 BC


550 BC - 651 AD

Includes the three Persian Imperial Dynasties: Achaemenid, Parthian, Sasanian.

550 BC: Persian conquest of Media, Lydia and Bablyonia by Cyrus the Great.

651 AD: Interrupted by the Islamic conquest

Seleucid Empire

312 BC - 63 BC

Sasanian Empire

224 AD - 651 AD

The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent c. 620 CE., under Khosrau II

Umayyad Caliphate

661 AD - 750 AD

Abbasid Caliphate

750 AD - 1517 AD

1258 AD: Mongol invasion and destruction of Baghdad.
1261 AD: Abbasid caliphate reestablished in Cairo.

1517 AD: Ottoman conquest of Eqypt

Ottoman Empire

1299 AD - 1923 AD