AP WORLD FINAL

Mesopotamia

Akkadian Empire

2334 BCE - 2100 BCE

This empire came into power after Sargon the Great united all the Sumerian city-states that were once individually ruled by kings. It was the first empire in history and was eventually conquered by the Babylonian Empire.

Sargon the Great

2334 BCE - 2218 BCE

Sargon the Great is the first emperor in world history. He rules the Akkadian Empire located in Sumer, or Southern Mesopotamia.

Sumerians Rule

2099 BC - 1800 BCE

Once the Akkadian Empire had been demolished, the city of Ur was rebuilt and the Sumerian people remained unconquered until 1800 BCE, when the Babylonians took over.

Babylonian Empire

1800 BCE - 1500 BCE

The Babylonian Empire, ruled by King Hammurabi took over after the Akkadians in Mesopotamia. Hammurabi is well known for his code of law that was created during his reign. The empire eventually fell to the Hittities in 1500 BCE.

Hammurabi's Code of Law

1772 BCE

This was the first official law code in history. It is best known for its "eye for an eye" policy, otherwise known as lex talionis.

Hittites Control

1500 BCE - 1000 BCE

This controlling group is well known for their introduction of iron tools to the Mesopotamian area. They lost control after their empire was destroyed by natural disasters.

Assyrian Empire

1000 BCE - 612 BCE

This empire is important because it is the first true militaristic empire. It was ruled by the strict King Ashurbinapal and they were eventually conquered by the New Babylonians, or Chaldeans in 612 BCE.

New Babylonian Empire

612 BCE - 539 BCE

This empire, also known as the Chaldean Empire, was ruled by the infamous King Nebuchadrezzer because he was a little mad. For his princess, he created the mysterious Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the historic world. They were eventually conquered by Cyrus the Great in his campaign for the Persian Empire.

Persian Empire

550 BCE - 330 BCE

This empire was first ruled by Cyrus the Great and eventually by Darius. It was the truly the first empire to have masses of conquered land that was enforced through a governing system known as satrapies. Each satrap had a governor and military forces that had to pay tribute to the king. The kings, especially Darius, promoted Zoroastrianism as the official religion and much culture was spread through the empire because of the Royal Road. It eventually crumbled when Alexander of Macedonia (the Great) conquered it during the Persian Wars.

Egypt

Archaic Era

3100 BCE - 2700 BCE

The Archaic Era was initiated after Medes united Upper and Lower Egypt. With the rise of pharaohs it eventually transitioned into the Old Kingdom Era.

Old Kingdom

2700 BCE - 2200 BCE

During this time, the most magnificent pyramids were built, the largest being Khufu. The pharaohs ruling had full power leading into the first intermediate period.

First Intermediate Period

2200 BCE - 2050 BCE

This time is important because pharaohs had somewhat lost control and it was the people with agricultural power that were respected. This time also saw the development of Amun-Re, the main sun god.

Middle Kingdom

2050 BCE - 1652 BCE

After the intermediate period the power of the pharaohs was restored during the Middle Kingdom.

Hyksos

1652 BCE - 1567 BCE

The Hyksos people invaded Egypt in 1652 BCE with weapons made out of a new material: bronze. Once bronze was introduced to the Egyptians it actually helped them create new products and eventually expel the Hyksos. The Hyksos basically helped the Egyptians more than harming their society by also introducing the use of war chariots.

New Kingdom

1567 BCE - 1085 BCE

The New Kingdom era started after Egypt expelled the Hyksos. This was the most prosperous era with arguably the most famous pharaohs, such as: Hatshepsut and Tutmose III. In addition, Amenhotep IV, or Akhenatan who promoted the cult of the sun which was a monotheistic religion.

The Late Period

1085 BCE - 525 BCE

The Late Period saw a severe decline in Egypt's power, wealth, and economy. By 525 BCE it was conquered by the Persian Empire.

Persia conquers Egypt

525 BCE

China

Xia Dynasty

2200 BCE - 1766 BCE

Little is known about the Xia Dynasty due to the fact that no written records were kept. It's existence is considered skeptical because of this. It's supposed leader was Yu who helped create irrigation techniques. The Xia Dynasty was followed by the Shang Dynasty.

Shang Dynasty

1766 BCE - 1122 BCE

The Shang Dynasty is known for its monopoly of bronze production and the creation of oracle bones that were used to determine the future. The main cities within the dynasty were Ao and Yin. After the Shang Dynasty came the Zhou Dynasty.

Zhou Dynasty

1122 BCE - 256 BCE

The Zhou Dynasty was founded on the Wei River and brought important impacts into history. The Mandate of Heaven was one of them, which said that the heavens had blessed certain people with the ability to rule. If, however, they were not doing an adequate job the heavens could also strip powers away from said person. They had a decentralized administration, which was the main issue that contributed to the Period of Warring States. This time would lead to the downfall of the empire in 256 BCE.

Period of Warring States

403 BCE - 221 BCE

This was a time filled with violence and administration chaos. The fighting took place between different ruled states of the Zhou Dynasty because of the decentralized administration. Once the conflicts were over, the Qin Dynasty would eventually replace the fallen Zhou Dynasty.

Qin Shihuangdi

246 BCE - 221 BCE

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 206 BCE

The Qin Dynasty was formed from the Period of Warring States. It ruled with legalist principles because legalism was what really got China out of the P.W.S.. Qin Shihuangdi was the first emperor and he created iconic things in Chinese history to note like: Great Wall, terra cotta warriors and the infamous book burnings. The Qin Dynasty fell to the Han Dynasty in 206 BCE.

Liu Bang

221 BCE - 207 BCE

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

Liu Bang was the Han Dynasty's founder, and one of the more successful emperors was Han Wudi. Wudi helped institute schools of Confucianism, a philosophy that was brought back into the Chinese lifestyle. The Han Dynasty is credited with inventing paper. Due to social conflicts like the Yellow Turban Rebellion, the Han Dynasty finally fell in 220 CE.

Han Wudi

141 BCE - 87 BCE

Xin Dynasty

9 CE - 23 Ce

Wang Mang takes control of the Han Dyansty briefly and renames it, but Han emperors soon take back control.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

184 CE

This was a rebellion of peasant farmers during the Han Dynasty. The peasants were fed up with unequal land distribution. Both the land distribution issues and this social conflict contributed to the end of the Han Dynasty.

Sui Dynasty

589 CE - 618 CE

The Sui Dynasty was the first after a long period of transitioning to technology and more centralized rule. The founder was Yang Jiang, most well known for the building of the Grand Canal.

Tang Dynasty

618 CE - 907 CE

The Tang Dynasty is most well known for its equal field system which tried to offer a possible solution to the issues that once brought down the Han Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty also helped foster new relations between Korea and Vietnam before it ended in 907 CE.

Song Dynasty

960 CE - 1279 CE

The Song Dynasty was most well known for its promotion of neo-confucianism, which was more of a syncretic blend between Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. The dynasty came to an end when the Mongols took over.

Mongol Control

1279 CE - 1368 CE

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

The Ming Dynasty started with the evacuation of the Mongols due to the Bubonic Plague and it's devastating effects. Hongwu was the founder; he was a Buddhist monk who created this "brilliant" dynasty. He used a system of strong central government and mandarins. Most importantly, he emphasized the return of classical Chinese traditions after the Mongols had left. Iconic inventions during this dynasty would include Zheng He's treasure ships and Yongle's Encyclopedia. Also, the issue of "Son of Heaven" was created which was basically the same thing as the "Mandate of Heaven".

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1911

The Qing came into power due to internal conflicts of the Ming Dynasty. The most famous emperor was Qianlong who much like the rulers of the Ming Dynasty ruled with a strict, central government and promoted certain trade and poetry. He restricted British trade to only Guangzhou which would eventually lead to the Opium War in which the British traded with cohongs, or official merchants. Eventually 1/3 of the entire Chinese population had an opium addiction. This is the LAST dynasty of China, eventually falling in 1911.