Period 6

Key Concept 6.1: I didn't do any events for 6.1 because the other key concepts always seemed more important for these events. Key Concept 6.2: Blue Key Concept 6.3: Purple

Events

Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

1914

Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia at the hands of a pan-Slavic group from Serbia called the Black Hand. The Slavs had long been wanting their own nation within the Austria-Hungarian Empire, and in a form of rebellion a Slavic nationalist shot the heir to the Hapsburg throne. This event proved to be a turning point for Europe as the catalyst that started the Great War. Austria declared war on Serbia, and Germany's alliance with Austria caused them also to declare war on Serbia. Soon almost the entire continent of Europe was at war into what would soon erupt into the world's first true global conflict. (Key Concept: 6.2)

World War I

1914 - 1918

WWI began with militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism. It was the world's first true global conflict, though much of the fighting happened in Europe. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (the Central Powers) fought against England and France and, later, the U.S. (the Allied Powers). The Central Powers eventually lost, and unfortunately none of their grievances were really addressed. Germany wasn't even invited to the peace conference, and they had to pay billions of dollars in reparations to the Allies. The ineffectiveness of WWI disillusioned much of Europe and opened the world up to new political systems, such as communism and fascism. In the end it could perhaps be said that World War I's biggest accomplishment was ensuring the beginning of World War II. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Japan Makes Twenty-One Demands on China

1915

After acting aggressively in surrounding areas such as the Shandong peninsula and Pacific islands, Japan exploited Allied support to to advance its own imperial interests in China. On January 18, 1915, the Japanese presented the Chinese government with twenty-one secret demands. Basically, the terms would have reduced China to a protectorate of Japan. Chinese diplomats leaked these demands to British authorities, who spoke up for China, thus preventing Japan totally controlling China. These demands reflected Japan's determination to dominate east Asia and served as the basis for future Japanese pressure on China. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Bolshevik Revolution

1917

The Bolshevik revolution was the first successful communist revolution in history. The Bolshevik rebels, led by Vladimir Lenin, brought down the ineffective provisional government left in place after Nicholas II abdicated his throne. The Bolsheviks wanted communism, not democracy, and their victory over the provisional government established the beginning of the Soviet Union. This newly communist nation would have huge implications for the rest of the world, as the end of WWI opened Europe up to new political options. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Ataturk Proclaims Republic of Turkey

1923

Ataturk proclaimed the independent republic of Turkey after World War I and after driving out Greek, British, French, and Italian occupation forces. He abolished the previous sultanate and replaced it with the Republic of Turkey. In a great victory for Turkey, the Allied Powers recognized the Republic of Turkey in the Treaty of Lausanne. Ataturk was able to rapidly modernize Turkey into a successful nation. Turkey was one of the few example of post-war WWI settlement that had lasting positive consequences. Other countries were left with unfair terms unlike those of which they had been promised. (Key Concept: 6.2)

First Soviet Five-Year Plan

1928 - 1932

The first five-year plan of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (the USSR) was a set of economic goals created by Joseph Stalin. This plan included rapid industrialization towards a socialist society. Stalin collectivized farming systems to abolish privately owned farms. This resulted in several famines spread out across thousands of acres of land, but overall the Five-Year Plan was successful in industrializing Russia and catching it up to the rest of this world. This success would be crucial during the Cold War, as the Soviet Union would be able to challenge the United States in several aspects of technology, such as space instruments and nuclear weapons. For the first time in history, Russia had the potential to be a leading industrialized superpower. (Key Concept: 6.3)

U.S. Stock Market Crash

1929

On October 28, 1929 the worst economic crash in history happened on Wall Street in the United States of America. This crash caused investors to pull out of American banks, and the American economy crumbled into what was called the Great Depression. After WWI, the American economy was supporting much of Europe and the rest of the world, so the rest of the global economy suffered as a result and also sank into a depression. For example. Germany entered a state of rapid inflation that caused many Germans to starve. The Great Depression showed for the first time the global economy that had sprung out of WWI. It weakened the power of democracy and opened the world up to new economic systems, such as the government having a bigger role in helping economic affairs. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Civil Disobedience Movement in India (Gandhi)

1930

Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement in India in 1930. Gandhi called on the people of India to boycott British institutions such as schools, offices, and courts. Gandhi was convinced that economic self-sufficiency was essential for self-government, so he wore home-spun clothing and asked his fellow Indian to do the same. Gandhi didn't believe in the use of force, but the British often responded to this movement with arrests. In 1919 in the city of Amritsar colonial troops killed 379 peaceful demonstrators. This nonviolence movement was an important early step in gaining Indian independence from the British. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Japanese Invasion of Manchuria

1931

The Japanese invaded Manchuria after the Mukden Incident, an event where the Japanese blamed the Chinese for exploding a bomb near a Japanese railroad. They used this incident as an excuse for encroaching on Chinese territory. The Japanese established a puppet state in Manchuria called Manchukuo, and they occupied this area until their defeat at the end of World War II. There were tales of atrocities done by the Japanese to the Chinese during this occupation, and the League of Nations wanted to stop the conflict but were unsuccessful in establishing any kind of authority. This weakened the League of Nations, and caused leaders such as Hitler and Mussolini to realize they could also invade new territories without serious repercussions from the League. This method of invading neighboring lands was one of the factors that triggered World War II. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Hitler is Ruler in Germany

1933 - 1945

Hitler and his Nazi party rose to power in Germany through political persuasion and civilian support. Hitler was a fascist, and was able to gain popularity through intense German nationalism and worshiping of the "Fatherland." When Hitler invaded Poland, he sparked a war with England that would soon turn into WWII. During WWII, Hitler's anti-Semitic views were responsible for the murders of millions of Jews and their displacement from Germany to concentration camps in Poland. Hitler killed himself when he realized Germany would lose the war, and today in history he stands out as one of the most horrible dictators in history, responsible for the death of millions. Hitler and his Germany were huge reasons for the beginning of WWII, and, indirectly, the creation of Israel. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Stalin's "Great Purge" in the USSR

Approx. 1934 - Approx. 1939

After the results of Stalin's First Five-Year Plan , the Soviet Communist Party prepared for its "Congress of Victors." This later turned into the "Congress of Victims" as Stalin incited a civil war within the party that was climaxed by highly publicized trials of former Bolshevik elites for treason and by a purge of two-thirds of the delegates. Next, Stalin removed from posts of authority all persons suspected of opposition. The victims faced execution or suffering in labor camps. By 1939, eight million Soviet citizens were in labor camps, and three million were dead as a result of this "cleansing." This establishment of the world's first dictatorship of the proletariat challenged the values and institutions of liberal societies everywhere and seemed to demonstrate the viability of communism as a social and political system. (Key Concept: 6.3)

The Long March by Chinese Communists

1934 - 1936

The Red Army in China (in other words, the chinese communists) began their long march in 1934. It was an epic journey of 10,000 kilometers across difficult terrain ridden with hunger, disease, and Guomindang forces. After the long march, the Red Army established their headquarters at Yan'an. This march inspired many Chinese to join the communists, and during it the leader Mao Zedong became prominent. This was a crucial moment for China as it marked a popular shift towards the communists and the rise of Mao Zedong as a leader. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Invasion of China by Japan

1937

When the Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1931`, they used the conquered land as a launching base for their troops as they invaded China a few years later. The Chinese were unable to offer much resistance, and the Japanese were able to capture China's most important port, Shanghai. The city of Nanjing fell as well, and the city underwent what is today called the "Rape of Nanjing." The Japanese killed and raped as many as 250,000 Chinese. By 1937, all major Chinese cities were captured by the Japanese. Eventually, as Japan was losing the war, they found their armies were stretched too thin in China, and they surrendered and left the country. Japan's invasion of China was significant because after they left, there was no longer a common enemy to link the Guomintang and the communists in China. The country was now set for political warfare and new economic systems. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Cardenas Nationalizes Oil Industry in Mexico

1938

President Cardenas of Mexico in 1930 nationalized Mexico's oil industry. This meant that he proclaimed the oil industry in Mexico belonged to the Mexican government, and not the U.S., therefore taking the oil from the U.S. This was a stand against foreigners meddling in Mexican affairs. Though the U.S. reacted negatively. Cardenas was able to settle the dispute with little money spent on the side of Mexico. This sparked a time of prosperity and nationalism for Mexico, with Cardenas at the forefront. It also began a new concept of Mexican independence. (Key Concept: 6.3)

World War II

1939 - 1945

World War II was sparked with the leader of Germany, Adolf Hitler, invading Poland, causing England to declare war on Germany. This war was more of a global war then WWI, as more of the fighting happened in the Pacific between Japan and the U.S. WWII saw the introduction of communist Russia and fascist Italy and Germany. After the war, communism had a big effect on the globe as more countries saw it as a form of acceptable government that didn't hold the disappointments of a democracy. This war was more successful in rebuilding countries after the war. Germany was again defeated in this war, but through the Marshall Plan the Allied Powers boosted Germany and Japan's economy. WWII solved some conflicts, but it also caused more global problems as European countries and the U.S. withdrew from their overseas empires, more often than not leaving chaos and violence in their wake. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Establishment of the United Nations

1945

The United Nations superseded the League of Nations (1920-1946) as the premier international governmental organization. This association of sovereign nations attempts to find solutions to global problems and to deal with virtually any matter of concern to humanity. The UN doesn't legislate, but within this organization a vast majority of the world's countries have a voice and can be heard. A principle purpose of the UN is to "maintain international peace and security." Though the UN hasn't been entirely successful in preventing conflict, it has eradicated certain diseases such as smallpox. Today, the UN serves as an organization poised to help the world, a prospect never before shared by so many different nations. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

1945

The Allied Powers had won the war in Europe, but the U.S. was still fighting battles in the Pacific against Japan. Japan had almost been brought to its knees by the continued fire bombing of major cities in Japan such as Tokyo. Fearing that Japan would never submit to defeat, President Harry Truman of the United States gave the order for the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This was the first time atomic bombs had been used in warfare, and they proved successful as Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed and Japan surrendered. This event marks the end of the war and the triumph of the Allies, but it also marks the beginning of a tense period in history, a period known as the Cold War as the Soviet Union and the United States entered into a nuclear arms race. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Partition of India

1947

Partition in India was the idea of dividing India into separate Hindu and Muslim states. As the terms of partition were announced, and Muslims left India to live in the newly established Pakistan while Hindus left Pakistan to live in India, there was violence between Muslims and Hindus that accompanied these migrations that made it hard to build these two new independent nations. Though this partition was mired in violence, Indian independence had massive consequences for the process of decolonization. Anti-imperial movements in Asia and Africa were encouraged by India's success, and the end of empire gained more steam. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Apartheid in South Africa

1948 - 1994

The apartheid in South Africa was a "separateness" installed by the white colonial leaders of the country. It was a program to control blacks and segregate them as 87 percent of the land was given to whites. The African National Congress was formed with their leader Nelson Mandela as a group meant to end the apartheid. There were continual protests against the apartheid from both Europe and South Africa, and eventually the apartheid was ended and Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. This conflict provides a good example of inter-colonial disputes between colonial whites and indigenous blacks. This conflict had huge consequences as an event that would lead to black prominence and independence in South Africa, as black leadership of a nation was a new and radical idea at this time. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Creation of Israel

1948

During World War I, the Allied Powers had promised to give the Jews a homeland, a place where they could all go and belong. This goal wasn't actually realized until the end of World War II, when millions of Jews had been slaughtered at the hands of Nazis from Germany. The nation of Israel was created in the Middle East so Jews could visit the city where much of their religion had begun, Jerusalem. However, the Jews were placed right in the middle of surrounding Arab nations, and the Arabs weren't happen with the presence of the Jews on their land. To this day, there is warring between the two groups, with the U.S. always backing Israel as the country that promised the Jews could go to Jerusalem. The continued warring between Jews and Arab nationalists is a problem that looks like it could turn even more worse in the future without drastic actions being taken. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Establishment of NATO

1949

NATO, or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, was a U.S. sponsored organization that signaled the militarization of the Cold War. NATO was created as a way to ally against Soviet aggression. The original members included Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States. The intent of this alliance was to maintain peace in postwar Europe through collective defense. NATO was an example of measures the U.S. took to combat the Soviets and prevent the spread of communism during the Cold War. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Establishment of the People's Republic of China

1949

The People's Republic of China signaled the birth of a communist China. This further transformed the Cold War and enhanced the power of the Soviet Union and its communist allies. Mao Zedong, the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949. This declaration brought to an end the long period of imperialist intrusion in China and created a tight alliance with China and the world's largest and most powerful socialist states. Despite setbacks in the upcoming years, China was again becoming a global player and today has one of the largest and most powerful economies in the world. (Key Concept: 6.2)

The Korean War

1950 - 1953

The outbreak of hostilities on the Koran Peninsula in the summer of 1950 shifted the focus of the Cold War from Europe to East Asia. After World War II, Korea was divided along the thirty-eighth parallel into a northern Soviet zone and a southern U.S. zone. The south was established as the Republic of Korea and the north as the People's Democratic Republic of Korea. Tensions rose in Korea as the Pyongyang regime in northern Korea attempted to unify the country by encroaching into the south. U.S. troops pushed the regime back into the north. This fighting continued until Korea was once again divided at the thirty-eighth parallel. This unstable political situation continues today as a hotspot for fighting between communist society and a republic. (Key Concept: 6.2)

French Defeat at Dien Bien Phu

1954

On May 7, 1954, the French-held garrison at Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam fell after a four month siege led by the communist Vietnamese nationalist Ho Chi Minh. After the fall of Dien Bien Phu, the French pulled out of the region.This was a crucial moment in world history, because after the French pulled out, the United States became concerned that Vietnam would fall to communism. The U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower feared the "domino theory," the idea that if one nation fell to communism, the nations surrounding it would as well. Therefore, the U.S. sent troops over to Vietnam to "contain" communism. Therefore, the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu had huge implications for the Cold War, as the U.S. would fight an unpopular war in Vietnam for roughly nine years before they finally ceded defeat. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

The Vietnam War was a product of the Cold War. It was called a "proxy war" between the Americans and the Soviets as the two fought for either capitalism of communism. After WWII, the French occupied Vietnam and fought against Ho Chi Minh when he established an independent communist state of Vietnam and called it the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The Vietnamese eventually defeated the French and they left, but the U.S. started fighting in Vietnam to stop the flow of communism from creating the "domino effect," the theory that if one nation falls to communism, other nations around it will as well. The Americans fought in capitalist South Vietnam against communist North Vietnam. The Ho Chi Minh trail that led through Laos and Cambodia caused Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia to be horribly bombed during this time. In the end, the Vietnam War was extremely unpopular in the U.S., and the U.S. left Vietnam in defeat. Vietnam was able to unify into one communist nation, and today the country is doing better economically than some other countries around it (such as Cambodia) that also suffered from imperialism. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Uprising in Hungary

1956

The most serious challenge to Soviet control in eastern Europe after World War II came from nationalist-minded communists in Hungary. The communist regime in Hungary embraced the process of de-Stalinization after his death, causing large numbers of Hungarian citizens to demand democracy and the breaking of ties to Moscow and the Warsaw Pact. Soviet leaders viewed this as a threat, and Soviet tanks entered Budapest and crushed the Hungarian uprising. This conflict symbolized the determination of the Soviet Union to keep eastern Europe communist, and also the tightening of rules in the Soviet Union itself. (Key Concept: 6.2)

The Great Leap Forward in China

1958 - 1961

The Great Leap Forward was Mao Zedong's plan to transform China from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization. Ultimately, the Great Leap Forward caused economic regression and millions died from starvation in the Great Chinese Famine. The disaster of the Great Leap Forward led Mao to launch the Cultural Revolution, an effort to preserve communist ideology and eradicate capitalists in China. Mao eventually lost popularity, and new leaders of China were able to improve China's economy and turn it once again into a global power. China remained a communist nation. (Key Concept: 6.3)

Castro Comes to Power in Cuba

1959

When Castro came to power in Cuba he established a communist state. Cuba is situated only 100 miles from Florida, so the idea of a communist state so close to the U.S. made the U.S. extremely nervous. President JFK sent the CIA to try to overthrow Castro, but the mission was a disaster, with Castro's position and power actually advanced after the catastrophe that was called the Bay of Pigs. Castro's leadership of Cuba heightened tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union as the S.U. supplied Cuba with nuclear weapons. This led to the Cuban Missile Crisis, the closest the world has ever gotten to nuclear war. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Construction of the Berlin Wall

1961

The Berlin Wall was extremely symbolic for the Cold War. After World War II, the capitalist U.S. from the west and the communist Soviet Union from the east creeped into Europe, each hoping to have their economic system be the dominant one on this tiny continent. The U.S was allied with the Soviets during the war, but after the war, capitalist-communist tensions led to a non-contact, or cold, war between the two. Eventually, Europe was divided between capitalists and communists. The leader of England, Winston Churchill, called this divide the "Iron Curtain." The Berlin Wall was the physical manifestation of the Iron Curtain as it was a wall situated between West (capitalist) Berlin and East (communist) Berlin. This wall heightened tensions between Americans and the Soviets because the symbol of their divide was situated right in the middle of Germany. The fall of the Berlin Wall was one of the huge factors that led to the end of the Cold War. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Creation of the PLO

1964

The PLO, or Palestine Liberation Organization, was made as a way to promote Palestinian nationalism. The aim was to establish an independent state for the Palestinians. They wanted to fight for their right to have a homeland they felt the Jews had taken away from them with the creation of Israel. The meeting that led to the creation of the PLO took place after the Arab-Israeli War. This organization serves as an example of conflicts that rose out of the creation of Israel after WWII. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Revolution in Iran

1979

The Iranian revolution began when Iran nationalists became increasingly frustrated with U.S. influence and interference in their country. As the revolution gained force, the C.I.A.-installed shah fled the country and power was captured by the Islamist movement under the direction of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The revolution was strongly anti-U.S., and Shia militants captured 69 hostages at the U.S. embassy in Tehran. This and other actions inspired other Muslims to undertake terrorist actions. Also, Iran being distracted by anti-U.S. feelings, Iraq took the opportunity to invade Iran. This revolution had huge consequences for both terrorism and fighting in the Middle East. (Key Concept: 6.2)

Collapse of USSR

1991

By the summer of 1990, the president of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev. had spent himself on various reform programs that were only successful in weakening the power of the USSR. Industrial and agricultural production in Russia was at a low while inflation skyrocketed in the country. Various regions within the Soviet Union fought for independence from the S.U., and the communist nation officially disintegrated in 1991. This event marked the end of the cold war, as Russia was no longer a communist nation. The end of the Cold War was crucial in world history because it created various new kinds of groups whose job it was to help the world after it had come so close to nuclear warfare. (Key Concept: 6.2)