Europe from 1600-1900 Timeline

Events

Protestantism was practically eradicated in Italy.

1600

William Gilbert published his book, Concerning the Magnet.

1600

Most all Protestant Countries had high growth rates.

1600

The Poor Law was passed

1601

Matteo Ricci created the first Chinese map to show the Americas.

1602

Queen Elizabeth died.

1603

James I became king of England.

1603

A plague began.

1603

Giovanni Diodati of Lucca published the first Italian translation of the Bible

1603

Guy Fawkes’ gunpowder plot was uncovered.

1605

Britains first colony, Jamestown, was successfully founded in America.

1607

John Milton, a poet was born.

1608

Emperor Rudolf II promised toleration to protestants.

1609

Galileo demonstrated his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

1609

Henry IV was assassinated.

1610

The King James Bible was published.

1611

Giovanni Gabrieli, an Italian composer died.

1612

Rudolf II persecuted Protestants.

1612

Carlo Gesualdo, an Italian composer died.

1613

Michael Romanov became the Tsar of Russia.

1613

John Rolfe successfully cultivated tobacco for export to England.

1614

John Napier discovered logarithms.

1614

Sir Walter Raleigh was executed.

1618

Many protestants in Bohemia rose up in rebellion.

1618

The Thirty Years War began.

1618

Ferdinand II became emperor.

1619

Sweden conquered Riga and Northeast Latvia.

1621

Giovanni Lanfranco painted the Council of the Gods on the Galleria Borghese.

1624

James I died.

1625

Charles I assumed power.

1625

Giulio C. Procaccini, an Italian sculptor and painter died.

1625

Simon Vouet was made King Louis XIII’s chief painter.

1627

William Harvey published a discovery regarding the circulation of blood.

1628

Charles I signed Petition of Rights.

1628

Charles I disbanded Parliament for 11 years.

1629

France entered a religious war supporting the Protestants.

1630

12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of a plague.

1630

Amsterdam became one of the most important ports.

1630

Marco d'Aviano, a preacher, was born in Aviano.

1631

Mount Vesuvius erupted.

1631

Christopher Wren, an architect was born.

1632

Jean-Baptiste Lully, a composer, was born in Florence.

1632

Galileo published his book, Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.

1632

Ferdinand Charles became emperor.

1632

William Laud became the Archbishop of Canterbury.

1633

Wind powered saw-mills became popular, this helped the economy.

1635

Scottish Calvinists revolted.

1637

The Bishop’s Wars began

1639

Georges de La Tour was named painter to the king.

1639

Charles I called Parliament back into session.

1640

The monopoly from the East India Trading Company began.

1640

Parliament stayed in session until now: known as Long Parliament.

1641

Civil war between Cavaliers and Roundheads began.

1642

Isaac Newton was born.

1642

Fronde revolts began.

1642

King Louis XIII died.

1642

The Bishop’s Wars ended.

1644

Parliament won the battle of Marston Moor.

1644

Parliament won the battle of Naseby.

1645

William Laud was executed.

1645

Oliver Cromwell's army defeated Cavaliers.

1646

The religious war in France ended with the Treaty of Westphalia.

1648

The Scottish invaded England and are defeated at Preston.

1648

The Thirty Years War ended.

1648

Civil war between Cavaliers and Roundheads ended.

1649

Charles I convicted of treason and beheaded.

1649

Protestantism lost popularity.

1650

Baroque painting arrived in the Germanic States.

1650

The first Anglo-Dutch war began.

1652

Inigo Jones, an architect died.

1652

Fronde revolts ended.

1652

England-Tea arrived in Britain.

1652

Oliver Cromwell was named Lord Protector of England.

1653

The first Anglo-Dutch war ended.

1654

Sweden invaded Poland.

1655

Leopold VI became emperor.

1657

Giuseppe Torelli, a composer, was born in Italy.

1658

Construction began on the Royal Palace in Turin.

1658

Poland’s war with Sweden ended.

1660

Cardinal Mazarin died.

1661

Louis XIV assumed full power.

1661

Louis XIV purchased the Gobelins workshops in Paris.

1662

The Royal Society is founded.

1662

Sigismund Francis became emperor.

1662

The French East India Company was formed.

1664

The second Anglo-Dutch war began.

1665

The Great Fire of London ran through the city.

1666

The second Anglo-Dutch war ended.

1667

Russia took control of most of Ukraine.

1667

Niels Steensen first published Prodromus in Italy.

1669

Hudsons Bay Company was formed.

1670

Heinrich Schutz, a composer, died.

1672

The Test Act was passed.

1673

Jan Sobieski was elected king in Poland.

1673

The Turks attacked Vienna.

1683

The Turks attacked Vienna.

1683

Domenico Scarlatti, a composer, was born in Naples.

1685

Ernst Gluck translated the New Testament into Latvian.

1685

Benedetto Marcello, an author and composer, was born in Venice.

1686

Isaac Newton published his most renowned work Principia Mathematica.

1687

Newton's Principia mathematica was created.

1687

The Glorious Revolution replaced King James II with William III of Orange.

1688

Ernst Gluck translated the Old Testament into Latvian.

1689

Giuseppe Tartini, a violinist and composer, was born in Piran.

1692

The Bank of England was founded.

1694

Peter the Great gained power in Russia.

1694

King Louis XIV created several additional tax systems.

1695

The Bank of Scotland was founded.

1695

Frederick Augustus of Saxony became king of Poland.

1697

Austria took Hungary from the Turks.

1699

Agricultural Revolution began.

1700

Christian missionaries begun to appear.

1700

The Great Northern War began.

1700

Peter the Great built St Petersburg.

1703

Hungary rebelled against Austria.

1703

Austria captured Milano from Spain.

1706

The Act of Union united England and Scotland.

1707

Sweden invaded Ukraine.

1709

The Russians captured Riga.

1710

Russia controlled all Swedish territory, along with Latvia.

1710

Austria claimed most of Lombardy, Savoy got the rest.

1713

The Treaty of Utrecht is signed which gave Milan and Southern Italy to Piedmont.

1713

The Pragmatic Sanction was put into play.

1713

Spain invaded southern Italy.

1718

The Quadruple Alliance defeated Spain.

1720

Italy and Austria traded together, Italy received Sardinia, Austria received Sardinia.

1720

Russia and Sweden made peace.

1721

The Great Northern War ended.

1721

The Russian Academy of Sciences was founded

1724

Isaac Newton died.

1727

Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin was accepted into the Académie as a painter.

1728

John Kay invented the Flying Shuttle.

1733

Frederick Augustus of Saxony died.

1733

King Carlos II formed the independent Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

1734

King Carlos II conquered Naples and Sicily from Austria.

1734

The last Medici died, so Tuscany is inherited by Austria's Franz I.

1736

Frederick the Great became the king of Prussia and he then invaded Silesia.

1740

Maria Theresa became the Empress of Austria.

1740

The War of Austrian Succession began.

1740

Catherine I seized power.

1741

French soldiers moved into Prague.

1741

Prussia defeated Austria at Mollwitz.

1741

The war ended with Austria, but Prussia received more land.

1745

The War of Austrian Succession ended.

1748

Industrial Revolution began.

1750

Huge wage decline because of population increase.

1750

The Seven Years' War began.

1754

The first Russian university was founded.

1755

The Seven Years' War ended.

1763

Francis I died.

1765

Joseph II became emperor.

1765

Confederacy of Bar began.

1768

Richard Arkwright invented the Water Frame.

1769

Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica.

1769

Missions in Labrador started being built.

1770

Venezia freed the Jews.

1772

Confederacy of Bar ended.

1772

Prussia took control of part of Poland.

1772

The jesuits were suppressed.

1773

Louis XV became king at the age of 19.

1774

The Flour War began.

1774

Ignaz Günther, a painter died.

1775

Johann Joseph Christian, a painter died.

1777

Samuel Crompton invented the Spinning Mule.

1779

A six month period began, where no pope was elected.

1779

Anton Raphael Mengs, a painter died.

1779

Maria Theresa died.

1780

The Act of Proscription was repealed.

1782

Minister of finance Charles Alexander proposed Financial Reforms.

1783

Henry Cort invented puddling.

1784

Étienne-Louis Boullée designed a monument to Isaac Newton.

1784

Napoleon became a lieutenant in the French Army.

1785

Edmund Cartwright invented the Power Loom.

1787

Assembly created the “A declaration of the rights of man and citizen”.

1789

Louis XVI called a meeting of all three estates.

1789

French Revolution started.

1789

Delegates from the 3rd estate sign the tennis court oath.

1789

King calls for estates to join in a National Assembly.

1789

Assembly passed the civil constitution of the clergy.

1790

Sans Culottes stormed Tuileries Palace and king flees.

1792

Prussian armies moved further into France.

1792

Napoleon moved up the ranks and became a captain in the French Army.

1792

Sans Culottes invaded Hall of Legislative Assembly.

1792

Prussia went to war with France.

1792

Francis II became emperor.

1792

First Coalition War began.

1792

Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin.

1793

King Louis XVI was publicly guillotined.

1793

King Louis XVI was sentenced to death.

1793

Convention created the Committee of Public Safety.

1793

Marat murdered by Charlotte Corday.

1793

Prussia took control of more of Poland.

1793

The National Convention first met.

1795

Prussia made temporary peace with France.

1795

Napoleon conquered northern Italy, this ended Genova's independence.

1796

Napoleon moved up the ranks and given command of the French Army.

1797

Napoleon conquered Venezia, then he traded it with Austria for Lombardy.

1797

First Coalition War ended.

1797

Second Coalition War began.

1798

Asmus Jacob Carstens, a painter died.

1798

Napoleon dissolved the Directory and replaced with a group of 3 councils.

1799

Royalist Rebels marched on the National Convention.

1799

Napoleon claimed Piedmont, Tuscany and the Papal state for France.

1800

The Italian physicist, Alessandro Volta invented the battery.

1800

The population of Italy rose to approximately 18 million.

1800

Riga’s population only consisted of 30,000

1800

Napoleon signed a concordat with Pope Pius VII.

1801

Second Coalition War ended.

1802

Richard Trevithick pioneered first steam powered locomotive.

1804

Napoleon had himself crowned emperor.

1805

Napoleon's army defeated Austria in the Battle of Ulm.

1805

The French destroyed the Prussians at Jena.

1806

Napoleon put an end to the Holy Roman Empire.

1806

The Peninsula War began.

1808

Jews are freed in Roma.

1810

The Latvian nobility ended serfdom.

1810

A French army of 600,000 invaded Russia.

1812

Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Austria defeat French in Battle of Leipzig.

1813

The Peninsula War ended.

1813

Prussia joined Russia’s side against France.

1813

Napoleon exiled to the Island of Elba.

1814

Napoleon exiled to the Island of St. Helena.

1815

Napoleon snuck out of Elba and returned to France.

1815

Napoleon reentered France and was defeated at Battle of Water Leo.

1815

The Congress of Vienna restored Europe to its state before Napoleon.

1815

A German Confederation was formed

1815

Klemens Metternich became the foreign minister.

1815

Metternich created the Karlsbad decrees.

1819

The Camorra, a mafia organization was founded in Naples.

1820

Turkey’s fleet was destroyed at the battle of Navarino.

1827

Greece became independent.

1829

Louis Philippe rose to power.

1830

King Charles X issued the July Ordinances.

1830

Railroad connecting Liverpool and Manchester was constructed.

1830

Parliament wrote the reform act of 1832.

1832

Outbreaks of cholera began in some Scottish towns.

1832

Prince Otto of Bavaria became king of Greece.

1833

The Zollverein was formed.

1834

The first railway in Germany was built.

1835

People’s Charter called for universal male suffrage.

1838

Armies of Austria and Prussia were pushing towards Paris.

1848

Louis Philippe gave up his kingship.

1848

The new constitution was officially ratified.

1848

The Second Republic was formed.

1848

Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected as president of France.

1848

A day of protest occurred in Paris.

1848

Constituent Assembly closed national workshops.

1848

King Frederick WIlliam IV appointed moderates to make a new constitution.

1848

King Frederick William IV agreed to grant Prussia a liberal constitution.

1848

Workers in Berlin issued a series of radical demands.

1848

Frankfurt Assembly met for the first time in Frankfurt.

1848

Metternich resigned.

1848

Antonio Meucci invented the telephone.

1849

Hungary was declared independent.

1849

The workers’ rebellions are ended.

1849

Frankfurt Assembly chose King Frederick WIlliam IV as emperor.

1849

Population rose by 48%.

1850

6,000 miles of railroad had been constructed.

1850

The transition into more Protestants began.

1850

Great Exhibition in London.

1851

Camillo Cavour appointed to be Prime minister of Piedmont.

1852

Cavour formed an alliance with Napoleon III.

1858

Piedmont provoked Austria to declare war.

1859

Napoleon made peace with Austria without telling Cavour.

1859

Napoleon III defeated Austria, and Piedmont claimed Lombardy and Tuscany.

1859

The Northern Italian states voted to unify with Piedmont.

1860

Garibaldi and his army of Red Shirts took over Sicily.

1860

The New Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed.

1861

First genocide by the Mafia occurred in Sicily.

1862

The first Latvian newspaper was published.

1862

Prussia and Austria are at war with Denmark.

1864

Italy defeated Austria and claimed Venezia in the Seven Weeks War.

1866

Italy allied with Prussia.

1866

Prussia and Austria go to war.

1866

The North German Confederation was formed.

1866

Austria was defeated by Prussia.

1866

Compulsory education was introduced in Hungary.

1868

Italy confiscated Rome from the Pope and declared it their capital.

1870

A huge percentage of Europeans were Protestant.

1870

Prussia destroyed France.

1870

Prussia made peace with France. The southern German states united with the north.

1871

Pirelli was founded.

1872

Luigi De Cristoforis invented the carburetor.

1876

The Tay Bridge collapsed.

1879

James Watt added a rotary engine to his Steam Engine.

1882

Italy entered the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria.

1882

Bismarck created interest for various illnesses.

1883

Italy received Somalia at an international conference in Berlin.

1885

Bismarck created pensions for the elderly.

1889

The Forth Rail Bridge was opened.

1890

Bismarck resigned - really kicked out.

1890

The Corinth Canal opened.

1893

The Italian army was defeated in Adwa, Ethiopia.

1896

Guglielmo Marconi filed a patent for a wireless cable.

1896

The Olympic Games were revived in Greece.

1896

Due to a recession socialist protests arose in the north.

1897

Germany started to expand its navy.

1898

The first Italian car was built by fiat.

1899

King Umberto I was assassinated by an anarchist.

1900

Riga’s population rose to half a million.

1900