In 1919, Atatürk began a nationalist revolution in Anatolia, that organized resistance to the peace settlement imposed on Turkey by the Allies. He gained victory over the Greeks enabled Ataturk to secure revision of the peace settlement in the Treaty of Lausanne. He established a government in 1921, in 1922 the Ottoman Sultanate was formally abolished and in 1923 Turkey became a secular government and Ataturk was the president. Connects to 6.3 because Turkeys government and society changed now that they were a new government.
The killing of Archduke Ferdinand lead to the chain of events of World War 1. He was killed by a Bosnian Serb nationalist. There were many attempts on his life like the bomb that was thrown at his car but only injured a officer. They were killed by gun shots. Connects to 6.2 because this lead to the events of World War 1
In world war 1 Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were considered the Central powers. Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan were the Allied powers. In 1917 the U.S joined the allied powers. During World War 1 new technologies were being invented like tanks and machine guns, and chemical weapons, there were also new war tactics like trench warfare. The Central powers were defeated in 1918. More then 9 million soldiers had been killed and 21 million more wounded. Connects to 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3 because there were knew technologies coming out, the world was fighting each other and it hurt the economy in all countries involved.
The 21 demands were made by the Japanese government for special privileges in China during World War 1. European powers had similar privileges in china so allowed it because of japans involvement in World War 1. In the 21 demands japan wants control over pieces of china and control over finances and police. This lead to anti-Japanese feelings in China. Connects to 6.2 and 6.3 because the Japanese controlled over some of China and could have hurt their economy.
The Bolshevik revolution was after the February revolution. It was lead by Vladimir Lenin the Bolshevik party leader. He launched a bloodless coup against the provisional government. They occupied government buildings and soon formed a new government with Lenin as leader. He made peace with Germany. Connects to 6.2 because they made peace with other countries.
Mussolini was a world war 1 veteran and the publisher of a socialist newspaper. He then breaks with the Italian Socialists and establishes the nationalist Fasci di Combattimento. This was advocating Italian Nationalism. He formed a new government he was appointed prime minister at the head of a three-member Fascist cabinet. He did cooperated with the Italian parliament but he was aided by his brutal police force and he soon became the effective dictator of Italy. He wanted new treaties formed with It5alies western allies. But when he invaded Ethiopia in 1935 that ended all hope of alliance with the Western democracies. In 1936 he sided with Hitler and he became his support. He was executed by a firing squad on April 29 and the hung by the feet in Milan for everyone to see. Connects to 6.2 and 6.2 because there are conflicts that Mussolini caused that didn't let him have western allies changed the government type of Italy.
Fidel Castro established the first communist state in the West after overthrowing the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959. He ruled over Cuba for almost five decades then handed off power to his younger brother Raúl in 2008. Castro was successful in reducing illiteracy, stamping out racism and improving public health care but was widely criticized for hurting the economic and political freedoms of the people. Connects to 6.3 because he improved some aspects of Cuba and hurt others.
The first 5 year plan was focused on rapid industrialization and increased productivity collectivization of agriculture. he wanted a 200% increase in iron production and 335% increase in electrical power and set his laborers to work with firm restrictions. The prisoners did most of the work because they were cheap and there were a lot of them. The Factory managers documented when they were late and or absent, and bad workmanship for each worker. If a worker was found guilty of treason for any of these reasons, he could be shot or sent to work on the Baltic Sea Canal or the Siberian Railway. But working on the Baltic and Railway helped a speedier industrialization process. Connects to 6.1 because they were increasing the production in industrialization and electric power and 6.3 because they needed full cooperation from everyone to make that happen.
The stock market crashed on a Tuesday known as Black Tuesday. Wall street investors were trading in 16million shares in the New York Stock Exchange in one day. Billions of dollars were lost. After the stock market crashed the rest of the industrialized world fell into the Great Depression (1929-39). During the depression production had declined and unemployment had risen, struggling agricultural production and, large bank loans that could not be liquidated. Stock prices declined leaving the people in panic. Connects to 6.3 because it caused the economy to crash and very little jobs to remain.
Gandhi's march to the sea in protest of the British monopoly on salt. Britain’s Salt Acts prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt that was important to the Indian diet. Citizens were forced to buy the vital mineral from the British who put a heavy salt tax on it. Gandhi and his supporters were to defy British policy by making salt from seawater, his group of supporters grew day to day. The British police beat the peaceful protestors this cried for help on the British in India.
Japan invaded Manchuria and did not declare war which breached the league of nations. Japan was very industrialized but they didn't have a lot of land or natural materials. China wanted help from the league of nations and they could do very little and it didn't effect Japan. Connects to 6.2 because japan comes in to China and needed help from the league of nations in Europe.
The president of Germany Paul von Hindenburg won re-election. But he had lost a big portion of his right/conservative support to the Nazi Party. But he sent his chancellor to appease the Nazis by lifting the ban on Hitler’s Brown Shirts and canceling Germany’s reparation payments that were imposed by the Treaty of Versailles at the close of World War I. Connects to 6.3 because the Nazis are now involved with the government.
President Cardenas expropriated all the nation's oil production from foreign entities mostly the United Kingdom, Netherlands and U.S. Only foreign companies were drilling oil in Mexico and Cardenas felt that the Mexican people were being taken advantage of. The workers were being very under paid compared to the other members of the foreign company. Connects to 6.3 cause it hurt the jobs of the Mexican people which would hurt the economy.
In 1933 the Guomindang leader Chiang Kai-shek launched a huge attack against the Chinese Communists that were in Jiangxi and Fujian. 500,000 Guomindang troops surrounded Jiangxi in an attempt to surrond the Communists. The Guomindang troops had a policy of making a slow advance building trenches and blockhouses as they went to give them some places of protection. Connects to 6.3 because they were trying to change the communist ways.
This was the largest war fought between two countries. The war was over land and resources. Japan started to gain control over northeastern provinces of China known as Manchuria. Japanese overran most of northern and central China. But the Chinese refused to surrender and the Japanese found themselves stuck in China. Connects to 6.2 because Japan came into China
During the reign of Joseph Stalin many people were executed or imprisoned in labor camps. it is considered the worst gendercide of the twentieth century. Connects to 6.3 because it changed for many families either by one or more dying or being imprisoned.
World War 2 involved most of the world this time. The Axis powers were Germany, Italy, and Japan and the Allies France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and, to an extent China. 0,000,000–50,000,000 deaths incurred in World War II make it the bloodiest conflict, as well as the largest war, in history. With the Allies winning the war. Connects to 6.2 and 6.3 because they were in different countries fighting and this was while some countries are still recovering from the great depression.
Before the war even started a man named Ho Chi Minh helped to form the Indo-Chinese Communist Party. In 1946 war broke out between the french and Vietnamese. 1949 Communist China came into being allowing the Vietnamese to train in China away from the french attacks. The U.S got involved and refused to recognise the Democratic Republic of Vietnam The Chinese and USSR did not recognize it either. in 1955 the pro-American Ngo Dinh Diem became President of South Vietnam in October and America agreed to train his army. He started to arrest anyone he thought was Vietnamese. The U.S sent over troops to aid Diem, and finally in 1973 there was a ceasefire signed in Paris. Connects to 6.2 because it is involving very different parts of the world.
In world war 2 the first deployed atomic bomb was dropped over japan by an American B-29. The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people and thousands more would later die of radiation exposure. three days later another B-29 dropped another bomb on Nagasaki killing 40,000 people. Japan then surrendered in world war 2. Connects to 6.1 because of the planes and bombs that were used at the time.
On January 1st 1942, 26 nations at war against the Axis powers met in Washington to sign the Declaration of the United Nations that meant they would use their full resources against the Axis and agreeing not to make a separate peace. Connects to 6.2 because different nations are coming together against a greater enemy.
The French was against the Vietnamese but have the U.S and Great Britain supporting them. But the Soviet Union and China supported the rebels (Vietnamese) with equipment and training. After the Communist victory in China the Vietnamese rebels were allowed the use of southern part of China as a staging point for attacks into northern Vietnam. Connects to 6.2 and 6.3 because it uses different areas of the world and new equipment and trainings.
When India and Pakistan gained independence in caused a mass migration of people. 10million people and about 1 million killed in riots. The were divided with Pakistan being a Muslim majority and India being a Hindu majority. Pakistan was a more Hindu and India was more Muslim governed with made people want to switch countries. Connects to 6.3 because two different religions are basically switching spots.
The beginning of Racial segregation and white supremacy began when the controversial land act of 1913 was passed three years after South Africa gained its independence. It marked the beginning of a territorial segregation, forcing black Africans to live in reserves and making it illegal for them to work as sharecroppers. World war 2 brought economic woes to south Africa causing the government to strengthen its racial segregation. In 1950 the government banned marriages between whites and people of other races, and prohibited sexual relations between black and white South Africans. Resisting the Apartheid was done in different ways non-violent demonstrations and protests to strikes and political action and eventually to armed resistance. Many blacks were killed during protests and towards the end of the Apartheid by police officers. South Africa was under pressure from the international community the National Party government of Pieter Botha instituted reforms including abolition of the pass laws and the ban on interracial marriage. Connects to 6.3 because the culture in Africa changed from segregated to not.
After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I the British gained control of Palestine. in 1917 issued the Balfour Declaration which would make Palestine the home for Jews. British said that they could no longer manage Palestine and handed it over to the United Nations. David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the creation of the State of Israel and became its first prime minister. Connects to 6.2 because it is one city into a country.
The communist victory brought power a peasant party. They learned about Marxist thinking and industrialization. The communist political system was supposed to raise the Chinese to the status of a great power. The communist policy (centre of gravity) shifted from the countryside to the city. The chairman of this party made many speeches about his aim was to create a socialist society and, eventually, world communism. Connects to 6.2 because he wanted basically to rule the world.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was established by 12 Western nations the United States, Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Iceland, Canada, and Portugal. the military alliance provided collective self-defense against the Soviet aggression and provided more American influence in Europe. in 1966 Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined NATO and France withdrew themselves. Connects to 6.2 because more then 15 nations have come together to defend against a common enemy.
The Korean War began when 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People’s Army came across the 38th parallel. This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War. American troops then entered on south Korea's behalf. In 1953 5 million soldiers and civilians died during the war. Connects to 6.3 because the country is divided into two parts North and South Korea and the societies are very different.
After Stalin's death the Hungarians thought that they would also be DE-stalinized. Students, workers and soldiers in Hungary attacked the secret police and Russian soldiers smashed Stalin's statue. For the first five days, there was freedom in Hungary. The new Hungarian government introduced democracy, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion to the people. Hungary was going to leave the Warsaw Pact but Khrushchev wouldn't allow that and that night 1,000 Russian tanks came into Budapest. They destroyed the Hungarian army and everyone in Hungary even children fought against the Russians 4,000 Hungarians died. Connects to 6.2 because to countries are fighting against each other.
The Great Leap forward was Mao's way of trying to modernize China and so they would have an economy that rivaled Americas. He felt that they should focus on agriculture and industrialization. It proved to be very successful and helped over 5000 families. Connects to 6.3 because he wanted to change the economy and China become better.
in 1961 the Germany communist government started to build the wall with barbed wire and concrete. The wall was supposed to keep Western “fascists” from entering East Germany and undermining the socialist state. In 1989 the East German Communist Party announced that citizens could cross the border whenever they pleased. That is when the wall fell.
The creation of the PLO was for the Palestinian nationalist movement which wanted to establish an independent state for the Palestinians. It was created because Palestinians did not trust other Arab nations and wanted to fight independently for their rights and for a homeland. Connects to 6.3 because they want to become independent and help themselves.
Mohammad Reza Shah was the president at the time and no one liked the way in which he used secret police to control the country. There was an opposition was lead by Ayatollah Khomeini, who lived in exile in Iraq and then in France. His message sent through cassettes smuggled through Iraq they were copied and spread even more. Connects to 6.3 because new ideas were spread throughout a country.
Christmas Day 1991 the Soviet flag flew over the Kremlin, Moscow for the last time. Eartlier representatives from 11 Soviet republics (Ukraine, the Russian Federation, Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) met in the Kazakh city and announced that they would no longer be apart of the Soviet Union. Instead they declared they would establish a Commonwealth of Independent States. Connects to 6.2 because the soviet is now independent and 6.3 because of the religious differences.