Neville Chamberlain was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 - 1940.
Chamberlain was the eldest son of the Birmingham Mayor Joseph Chamberlain and also half-brother to Sir Austen Chamberlain. Became Lord Mayor of Birmingham himself in 1915 after a successful start in business.
Served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1923 - 1924, and was Minister of Health in 1923 and from 1924 to 1929.
He became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in 1937, succeeding Stanley Baldwin. His policy of appeasement culminated in the Munich Pact of 1938 which effectively allowed Adolf Hitler to annex Czechoslovakia, and delayed the onset of World War II by a year.
One popular view is that Chamberlain believed passionately in peace, and wanted to avoid war at virtually any cost, which seems to have contributed to his willingness to believe that satisfying each of Hitler's escalating demands for control of more and more territory would finally be the last, and that peace would be ensured. Eventually, although too late to prevent the war that arguably could have been ended by British military intervention when the Third Reich hadn't yet built its military strength, Chamberlain was able to see through Hitler's tactics and supported the declaration of war against Germany after the invasion of Poland.
However, this view has been criticized as being inconsistent with the historical facts. Under Chamberlain, the United Kingdom undertook a massive expansion of its military and war industry and instituted a peacetime draft. According to some historians, Chamberlain was under no illusions about that aims and goals of Nazi Germany, but was informed by his military advisers that Britain was in no condition to fight Germany over Czechslovakia. Seen from this vantage point, Chamberlain's actions in Munich were less a cowardly and ignorant cave-in, but rather a calculated and necessary tactic to buy time so that Britain could rearm against the Nazi menace.
He resigned from office in 1940, weeks before the evacuation of British and French troops at Dunkirk, and was succeeded by Winston Churchill. He died from cancer a month later.
Winston Churchill - Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (November 30, 1874 - January 24, 1965)
Born at Blenheim Palace, Winston Churchill was a descendant of the first famous member of the Churchill family: John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (whose father was also a "Sir Winston Churchill"). Winston's father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was the third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough.
On 12 September 1908 Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill married clementine ogilvy hozier. She died 12 December 1977.
They had five children: Diana (1909–1963); Randolph (1911–1968); Sarah (1914–1982); Marigold (1918–1921); and Mary (1922-2014). Only Mary, the youngest, shared their parents' longevity, the others all dying before reaching the age of 70: Marigold died at the age of three, and the other three (Diana, Sarah, and Randolph) all died in their 50s and 60s. The Churchills' marriage was close and affectionate despite the stresses of public life.
The first notable appearance of Winston Churchill was as a war-correspondent in the second Anglo-Boer war between Britain and self-proclaimed Afrikaaners in South Africa. He was captured in a Boer ambush of a British Army train convoy, but managed a high profile escape and eventually crossed the South African border to Lorenzo Marques (now Maputo in Mozambique).
Churchill used the status achieved to begin a political career which would last a total of sixty-one years. At first a member of the Conservative party, he soon 'crossed the floor' to the Liberals and entered the Cabinet in his early thirties. His early career was distinctly unimpressive. He was one of the political and military engineers of the tragic and disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during World War I, which led to his description as "the butcher of Gallipoli". He was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 which established the Irish Free State. The Liberal party was now was beset by internal division. After losing his seat in the 1922 General Election to Edwin Scrymgeour he rejoined the Conservative party. Two years later in the General Election of 1924 he was elected to represent Epping as a Conservative. He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1926 under Stanley Baldwin and was responsible for returning Britain to the Gold Standard. During the General Strike of 1926, Churchill was reported to have suggested that machine guns should be used on the striking miners. Churchill edited the Government's newspaper, the British Gazette, during the dispute he argued that "either the country will break the General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country.".
The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931 Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was now at the lowest point in his career in a period known as 'the wilderness years'. He spent much of next few years concentrating on his writing, including the History of the English Speaking Peoples. He became most notable for his outspoken opposition towards the granting of independence to India. Soon though, his attention was drawn to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Germany's rearmament. For a time he was a lone voice calling on Britain to re-arm itself and counter the belligerence of Germany. Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Hitler.
At the outbreak of the Second World War Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty On Chamberlain's resignation in May, 1940, Churchill was appointed Prime Minister and formed an all-party government. He immediately made his friend and confidant, industrialist and newspaper baron, Max Aitken, (Lord Beaverbrook) in charge of aircraft production. It was Aitken's astounding business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering that eventually made the difference in the war.
His speeches at that time were a great inspiration to the embattled United Kingdom. His famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat" speech was his first as Prime Minister. He followed that closely, prior to the Battle of Britain, with "We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender."
He paid the Royal Air Force the highest compliment after the Battle of Britain with "Never in field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many, to so few".
His good relationship with U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt secured the United Kingdom vital supplies via the North Atlantic Ocean shipping routes. Churchill had also established the Special Operations Europe (SOE) that attempted guerrilla operations in occupied France, with notable success.
Churchill was one of the driving forces behind the treaties that would re-draw post-WWII European and Asian boundaries. The boundary between North Korea and South Korea were proposed at the Yalta Conference, as well as the expulsion of Japanese from those countries. Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were discussed as early as 1943 by Roosevelt and Churchill; the settlement was officially agreed to by Truman, Churchill, and Stalin at Potsdam (Article XIII of the Potsdam protocol).
One of these settlements was the boundary between the future East Germany and Poland at the Oder-Neisse line, which was rationalized as compensation for Soviet gains in Ukraine. As part of the settlement was an agreement to continue the expulsion of ethnic Germans from the area, which arguably had begun as a program after 1920 when Poland had been given the Polish Corridor by Britain and France. The exact numbers and movement of ethnic populations over the Polish-German and Polish-USSR borders in the period between the end of World War I and the end of World War II is vastly difficult to determine. This is not least because, under the Nazi regime, many Poles were replaced in their homes by the conquering Germans in an attempt to consolidate Nazi power. In the case of the post-WWII settlement, Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the expulsion of the Germans, despite the fact that many of the ethnic Germans had lived in Poland for generations. As Churchill expounded in the House of Commons in 1944, "Expulsion is the method which, in so far as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble...A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions..."
Although the importance of Churchill's role in World War II was undeniable, he produced many enemies in his own country. His expressed contempt for ideas such as public health care and for better education for the majority of the population in particular produced much dissatisfaction amongst the population, particularly those who had fought in the war. Immediately following the close of the war in Europe Churchill was heavily defeated at election by Clement Attlee.
At the beginning of the Cold War he coined the term the "Iron Curtain," a phrase that entered the public consciousness after a 1946 speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri when he famously declared "From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere."
Following Labour's defeat in the General Election of 1951, Churchill again became Prime Minister. In 1953 he was awarded two major honours. He was knighted and became Sir Winston Churchill and he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values". A stroke in June of that year led to him being paralysed down his left side. He retired because of his health in 1955 but retained his post as Chancellor of the University of Bristol.
On January 15, 1965 Churchill suffered another stroke - a severe cerebral thrombosis - that left him gravely ill. He died nine days later on January 24, 1965. His body lay in State in Westminster Hall for three days and a state funeral service was held at St. Paul?s Cathedral. This was the first state funeral for a commoner since that of the Duke of Wellington over 100 years earlier. At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at Saint Martin's Churchyard, Bladon, Woodstock, England.
Churchill is believed by several writers to have suffered from bipolar disorder and in his last years, Alzheimers Disease; certainly he suffered from fits of depression that he called his "black dogs".
The United States Navy destroyer USS Winston Churchill (DD-81) is named in his honour.
Churchill is known as a great wit as well as a politician. Nancy Astor once told him "If I were your wife I'd poison your coffee," to which Churchill replied: "If I were your husband, madam, I would drink it." Another example relates to a report which he received from Admiral Pound, whom Churchill did not rate. On the report he wrote "Pennywise".
Churchill is included in the top 10 of the 2002 "100 Greatest Britons" poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public.
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) was the second leader of the Soviet Union. His real name was Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, and he was also known as Koba (a Georgian folk hero) to his closest sphere. The name "Stalin" (derived from combining Russian stal, "steel" with "Lenin") originally was a conspirative nickname; however, it stuck to him and he continued to call himself Stalin after the Russian Revolution. Stalin is also reported to have used at least a dozen other names for the purpose of secret communications, but for obvious reasons most of them remain unknown. He was one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 in order to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, alongside Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Sokolnikov and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He subsequently managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin through suppressing Lenin's criticisms (in the postscript of his testament) and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He remained general secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 onward, and He had the Berlin wall built in August 13, 1961.
His 2 wives: Nadezhda Alliluyeva (April 2, 1885 - December 5, 1907)(m. 1906–1907), and Ketevan Svanidze (September 22, 1901 - November 9, 1932) (m. 1919–1932).
and His 3 Children: Yakov Dzhugashvili, Vasily Dzhugashvili, Svetlana Alliluyeva.
Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964) was an American general, best known for his role in Asia during and after World War II.
He was the son of the civil War hero General Arthur MacArthur and grew up on Army bases. He was accepted to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1898 and graduated first in his class in 1903.
During World War I he served in France, first with the 42nd Division and on his promotion to brigadier general (the youngest ever in the U.S Army), as commander of the 84th Infantry Brigade. He spent most of the inter-war period on different assignments in the Philippines. He left the U.S. Army in 1937 to command the Philippines Army, but later returned in July, 1941 as commander of the U.S. forces in the Philippines.
During World War II, he fought in south-east Asia against Japan: after the defeat of his weak forces in the Philippines, he was made the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific and took command of American, British and Australian forces defending Australia, fighting mainly in the Solomon Islands and the large island of New Guinea, where they eventually overrun the Japanese resistance in 1944; afterwards, they took back the Philippines from October 1944. In September 1945 MacArthur received the formal japanese surrender which ended WWII; he then served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan until June 1950.
After the surprise attack of the communist North Korea army in 1950 started the Korean War, the United Nations General Assembly authorized a U.N. Force to re-unify the Korean peninsula in October. MacArthur led the U.N. coalition (whose back bone was the American military) counter-offensive, noted for a amphibious landing behind North Korean lines at Inchon. As his forces approached the Korea-China border, the Chinese warned they would become involved and on October 25 1951, the PLA attacked across the Yalu River forcing the U.N forces on a long retreat. MacArthur sought an extension of the conflict into China and was relieved of duty by Truman in April 1951.
He was replaced by General Matthew B. Ridgway who stabilized the situation near the 38th parallel. MacArthur's last public appearance was a farewell address to Congress, interrupted by thirty ovations.
He returned from Korea to considerable public adulation, there was talk of him running for the presidency in 1952. When these hopes died away he spent the remainder of his life quietly in New York.
He had 2 wivies the first wife was Louise Cromwell Brooks (m. 1922–1929)(Born 1890 - Died May 30, 1965) he had no Children with Louise. his second wife was Jean Marie Faircloth (m. 1937–1964)(Born December 28, 1898 - Died January 22, 2000) he had 1 child with Jean, Arthur MacArthur IV.
President Roosevelt - Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 - April 12, 1945) was the 32nd (1933-1945) President of the United States. He was elected to an unprecedented four terms of office - the only U.S. president elected more than twice.
He was born on January 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, New York, and died on April 12 1945 in Warm Springs, Georgia of a cerebral hemorrhage.
He graduated from Harvard University(1903), and attended Columbia Law School. On March 17, 1905, Franklin Delano Roosevelt married Eleanor Roosevelt a distant cousin. She died November 7, 1962. Eleanor and Franklin had six children: Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (May 3, 1906 – December 1, 1975) James Roosevelt II (December 23, 1907 – August 13, 1991) Franklin Roosevelt (March 18, 1909 – November 1, 1909) Elliott Roosevelt (September 23, 1910 – October 27, 1990) Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. (August 17, 1914 – August 17, 1988) John Aspinwall Roosevelt II (March 13, 1916 – April 27, 1981)Government Positions include: Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913-1920; Governor of New York, 1929-1933.
In 1935-1936, the Supreme Court struck down eight of FDR's New Deal programs. In response Roosevelt submitted to Congress in February of 1937 a plan for "judicial reform," which proposed adding a justice for every justice over the age of 70 who refused to retire, up to a maximum of 15 total. This came to be known as his attempt to "pack" the Court.
Campaigning for reelection in 1940 against Wendell L. Willkie, Roosevelt said that he would not send American boys to fight in foreign wars. Some have suggested Roosevelt had prior knowledge of the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and welcomed it as a way to get the U.S. into World War II. Others point out, that while U.S. code-breakers had broken Japanese codes in Washington, D.C. and knew something was about to happen, communication delays prevented the messages for getting to Pearl Harbor until 4 hours after the attack.
In hindsight, perhaps the most controversial decision Roosevelt made was Executive Order 9066 which resulted in the internment in concentration camps of 110,000 Japanese nationals and American citizens of Japanese descent on the West Coast. Considered a major violation of civil liberties, it was even opposed at the time by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover as well as Eleanor Roosevelt as well as many other groups. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Executive Order.
Some have said of all the American Presidents of the 20th century, that he was the most loved and most hated. He was so well known, he was referred to by his initials, FDR.
One speech he is famous for delivering was his State of the Union Address in 1941. This speech is also known as the Four Freedoms Speech.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 - April 28, 1945) was the fascist dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943. Mussolini created an anti-democratic, fascist state in Italy through the use of propaganda. By using his total control of the media, he disassembled the existing democratic government system.
Mussolini was born in Predappio, near Forli, in Romagna. His father, Alessandro, was a blacksmith, and his mother, Rosa Maltoni, was a teacher. Like his father, Benito became a socialist. He qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in 1901. In 1902 he emigrated to Switzerland. Unable to find a permanent job there and arrested for vagrancy, he was expelled and returned to Italy to do his military service. After further trouble with the police, he joined the staff of a newspaper in the Austrian town of Trento in 1908. At this time he wrote a novel, subsequently translated into English as The Cardinal's Mistress. Mussolini had a brother, Arnaldo, who became one of the most important developers of the original fascist Idea.
Birth of Fascism
In November 1914 he founded a new newspaper, Il Popolo d'Italia, and the prowar group Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria. He evidently hoped the war might lead to a collapse of society that would bring him to power. Called up for military service, he was wounded in grenade practice in 1917 and returned to edit his paper. Fascism became an organized political movement in March 1919 when Mussolini founded the Fasci de Combattimento. After failing in the 1919 elections, Mussolini at last entered parliament in 1921 as a right-wing member. The Fascisti formed armed squads to terrorize Mussolini's former Socialist colleagues. The government seldom interfered. In return for the support of a group of industrialists and agrarians, Mussolini gave his approval to strikebreaking, and he abandoned revolutionary agitation. When the liberal governments of Giovanni Giolitti, Ivanoe Bonomi, and Luigi Facta failed to stop the spread of anarchy, and after Fascists had organised a demonstrative "Marcia su Roma" (Oct. 28th 1922), Mussolini was invited by the king to form a new government.
At first he was supported by the Liberals in parliament. With their help he introduced strict censorship and altered the methods of election so that in 1925-1926 he was able to assume dictatorial powers and dissolve all other political parties. Skillfully using his absolute control over the press, he gradually built up the legend of the "Duce (Il duce), a man who was always right and could solve all the problems of politics and economics. Italy was soon a police state. With those who tried to resist him, for example the Socialist Giacomo Matteotti, he showed himself utterly ruthless. But Mussolini's skill in propaganda was such that he had surprisingly little opposition.
At various times after 1922, Mussolini personally took over the ministries of the interior, of foreign affairs, of the colonies, of the corporations, of the army and the other armed services, and of public works. Sometimes he held as many as seven departments simultaneously, as well as the premiership. He was also head of the all-powerful Fascist party (formed in 1921) and the armed Fascist militia. In this way he succeeded in keeping power in his own hands and preventing the emergence of any rival. But it was at the price of creating a regime that was overcentralized, inefficient, and corrupt.
Most of his time was spent on propaganda, whether at home or abroad, and here his training as a journalist was invaluable. Press, radio, education, films--all were carefully supervised to manufacture the illusion that fascism was the doctrine of the 20th century that was replacing liberalism and democracy. The principles of this doctrine were laid down in the article on fascism, reputedly written by himself, that appeared in 1932 in the Enciclopedia Italiana. In 1929 a concordat with the Vatican was signed, by which the Italian state was at last recognized by the Roman Catholic Church.
Under the dictatorship the parliamentary system was virtually abolished. The law codes were rewritten. All teachers in schools and universities had to swear an oath to defend the Fascist regime. Newspaper editors were all personally chosen by Mussolini himself, and no one could practice journalism who did not possess a certificate of approval from the Fascist party. The trade unions were also deprived of any independence and were integrated into what was called the "corporative" system. The aim (never completely achieved) was to place all Italians in various professional organizations or "corporations", all of them under governmental control.
Mussolini played up to his financial backers at first by transferring a number of industries from public to private ownership. But by the 1930's he had begun moving back to the opposite extreme of rigid governmental control of industry. A great deal of money was spent on public works. But the economy suffered from his exaggerated attempt to make Italy self-sufficient. There was too much concentration on heavy industry, for which Italy lacked the resources.
In foreign policy, Mussolini soon shifted from pacifist anti-imperialism to an extreme form of aggressive nationalism. An early example of this was his bombardment of Corfu in 1923. Soon after this he succeeded in setting up a puppet regime in Albania and in reconquering Libya. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean "mare nostrum ("our sea). In 1935, at the Stresa Conference, he helped create an anti-Hitler front in order to defend the independence of Austria. But his successful war against Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935-1936 was opposed by the League of Nations, and he sought an alliance with Nazi Germany, which had withdrawn from the League in 1933. His active intervention in 1936-1939 on the side of Gen.Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War ended any possibility of reconciliation with France and Britain. As a result, he had to accept the German annexation of Austria in 1938 and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in 1939. At the Munich Conference in September 1938 he posed as a moderate working for European peace. But his "axis with Germany was confirmed when he made the "Pact of Steel" with Hitler in May 1939. Clearly the subordinate partner, Mussolini followed the Nazis in adopting a racial policy that led to persecution of the Jews and the creation of apartheid in the Italian empire. However, he refused to allow Jews to be deported to concentration camps until Germany occupied Italy during the war.
World War II
As World War II approached, Mussolini announced his intention of annexing Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. In April 1939, after a brief struggle, he occupied Albania. Failing to realize that he had more to gain by trying to hold the balance of power in Europe, he preferred to rely on a policy of bluff and bluster to induce the Western democracies to give way to his increasing territorial demands. The fact that Italy had began its military buildup before other powers became a disadvantage as by 1939, its military infrastructure was becoming obsolete. His armed forces were completely unprepared when Hitler's invasion of Poland led to World War II. He decided to remain "nonbelligerant" until he was quite certain which side would win.
Only after the fall of France did he declare war in 8th of June 1940, hoping that the war had only a few weeks more to run. His attack on Greece in October was a military disaster, and his position in Greece required the assistance of German troops. Following Hitler, he declared war on the Soviet Union in June 1941 and on the United States in December 1941.
Following Italian defeats on all fronts and the Anglo-American landing in Sicily in 1943, most of Mussolini's colleagues (the Conte Ciano, his son-in-law, included) turned against him at a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council on July 25, 1943. This enabled the king to dismiss and arrest him.
He was then sent to Gran Sasso, a mountain recovery in central Italy (Abruzzo), in complete isolation.
Mussolini was substituted by the Maresciallo d'Italia Gen. Pietro Badoglio, who immediately declared in a famous speech "La guerra continua a fianco dell'Alleato Germanico" ("War continues at the side of our German allies"), but was instead working to negotiate a surrender; in a few days (Sep. the 8th) Badoglio would sign a armistice with allied troops.
Rescued by the Germans several months later in a spectacular raid by Otto Skorzeny, Mussolini set up a Republican Fascist state (RSI - Repubblica Sociale Italiana) in northern Italy with him living in Gargnano. But he was little more than a puppet under the protection of the German Army. In this "Republic of Salo'", Mussolini returned to his earlier ideas of socialism and collectivization. He also executed some of the Fascist leaders who had abandoned him, including his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano.
On April 28, 1945, just before the Allied armies reached Milan, Mussolini, along with his mistress Claretta Petacci, was caught by Italian partisans as he headed for Chiavenna to board a plane for escape to Switzerland. They were both shot on the spot along with their sixteen-man escort The next day the bodies were hung in Piazzale Loreto (Milan) along with those of other fascists to be abused by the crowds. Mussolini's body was then taken to Predappio and the family chapel.
The Duce was survived by his wife, Donna Rachele, by two sons, Vittorio and Romano Mussolini, and his daughter Edda, the widow of Count Ciano. A third son, Bruno, had been killed in an air accident while testing a military plane.
Mussolini's niece Alessandra, daughter of Romano Mussolini, is today a deputy in the Republican Chamber representing the Alleanza Nazionale party for Naples.
He was the 33rd (1945 - 1953) President of the United States. Properly, the "S" in Harry S Truman should have no period after it. "S" is not an abbreviation for a middle name; it is his middle name, itself.
Truman served in the United States Senate, representing Missouri, prior to becoming Vice President under Franklin Delano Roosevelt in March 1945. When Roosevelt died, Truman became President, and presided over the events ending World War II. It was Truman who made the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. He also established the Truman Doctrine to help fight communism is Greece and Turkey.
Truman ran for president in his own right in 1948, winning by a narrow margin over Republican challenger Thomas Dewey.
Truman issued the executive order integrating the U.S. Armed Services following World War II.
He had 1 wife Elizabeth Virginia Wallace February 13, 1885 - October 18, 1982 (aged 97) and 1 child Mary Margaret Truman Daniel. The Trumans' wedding day was on June 28, 1919
was born on November 11, 1885 in San Gabriel, California. His military career was one of the most colorful of all 20th Century military leaders. He participated in the Pentathlon of the Stockholm Olympics in 1912 and placed fifth overall in the event. Later, he served as a member of General John J. Pershing’s staff both during the punitive Expedition to Mexico and in World War I. He joined the newly formed Tank Corps, where he served until the Corps was abolished in 1920 at Fort Meade, Maryland. After World War I, he held a variety of staff jobs in Hawaii and Washington, D.C., and completed his military schooling as the distinguished graduate of the Army War College. He served as control officer for the mechanized maneuvers in Georgia and Louisiana, which tested the entire mechanized concept of the Army.
With the formation of the Armored Force in 1940 at Fort Knox, he transferred to the 2d Armored Division at Fort Benning, Georgia, and was named the Commanding General, 2d Armored Division, on April 11, 1941.
On November 8, 1942, Patton commanded the Western Task Force, the only all American force, landing in North Africa. After the American defeat at Kasserine Pass, he was given command of all American forces in the Tunisia Combat Area.
He commanded the Seventh army during the invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and served in this capacity until March 1944, when he was given command of the Third Army which became operational in France in August 1944. When American forces broke through the German defenses, Patton's Third Army dashed across Europe and exploited German weaknesses with remarkable success. In October 1945, he assumed command of the Fifteenth Army in American-occupied Germany. On December 21, 1945, General Patton died in Germany as a result of an automobile accident. He is buried among the soldiers who died in the Battle of the Bulge in Hamm, Luxembourg.
Note: This biography is from the "Patton Museum of Cavalry and Armor."
He had 1 wife Beatrice Banning Ayer (m. 1910–1945) (Died: 1953) and three children: George Patton IV, Beatrice Smith, and Ruth Ellen.
Generallsslmo Chlang Kal-shek, also known in short as "Gimo", was the leader of the National Party of the Republic of China, known as the Kuomintang (KMT). A disciple and brother-in-law of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang and his wife Soong May-ling were nominal Methodists, a fact that would have enormous repercussions on the US China policy during World War II and beyond in part due to publicity generated by the publisher of Time Magazine Henry Luce, himself a child of missionaries in China.
After the death of Sun Yat-Sen, Chiang was able to take control of the Guomindang by his political tactics. In 1927, Chiang led the Northern Expedition whose aim was to unify China under the control of the Guomindang.
Chiang's strategy during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) (a theatre of World War II) opposed the strategies of both Mao Zedong and the United States. The US regarded Chiang as an important ally able to help shorten the war by engaging the Japanese occupiers in China. Chiang, in contrast, used powerful associates such as H. H. Kung in Hong Kong to build the ROC army for certain conflict with the communist forces after the end of WW2. This fact was not understood well in the US. The US liaison officer, General Joseph Stilwell, eventually deduced that Chiang was going to let the US save him from fighting Japan, but was not able to influence US policy. (As a side note, Stilwell's frustration is apparent in his diaries. He refers to Chiang as "peanut head" on a regular basis.)
After losing the Chinese Civil War, Chiang led his followers to Taiwan where he proclaimed himself President of Taiwan (while still claiming to be President of China). He died there in 1975 and was succeeded as President by his son Chiang Ching-Kuo.
Unlike his son, Chiang Kai-Shek remains a largely unpopular figure on Taiwan because of his authoritarian rule of the island. Since the 1990s, his picture has tended to disappear from public buildings, coins, and money.
was the leader of the Nazi Party (from 1919) and dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945. Widely regarded as a great orator and skillful propagandist, he inspired and mobilized many followers. He was appointed Reichskanzler (Reich Chancellor) on January 30, 1933 and assumed the twin titles of Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Reich Chancellor) after President Paul von Hindenburg's death on August 2, 1934. Under his leadership, Germany started World War II and committed the Holocaust, a major case of genocide.
Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a small town in upper Austria on the Austro-German border. He was the third of five children from Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl.
Hitler was born in a family of a customs officer. Hitler's father, Alois (born 1837), was illegitimate and for a time bore his mother's name, Schicklgruber, but by 1876 he had established his claim to the surname Hitler. Adolf never used any other name, and the name Schicklgruber was revived only by his political opponents in Germany and Austria in the 1930s.
His boyhood was spent under the strict discipline of his retired civil-servant father. Adolf read books by James Fenimore Cooper and Karl May. On January 3, 1903, Hitler's father died. On December 21, 1907 Hitler's mother died.
Hitler tried unsuccessfully to become a fine arts student at the Vienna Arts Academy in 1907. He had developed a special interest in architecture. He then had several odd jobs, but never long enough to escape poverty and he lived on the streets, working as a street painter, and eating at soup kitchens.
He spent some time in the public gallery of the Austrian Parliament. He later wrote that his observations there developed his contempt of democracy and what he saw as the contaminating dominance of Jews in parliament and society. He also cultivated his love of Germanism, and observed how political activists influenced the masses.
In Spring 1913, to avoid the Austrian Army's draft, Hitler moved to Munich and made a living selling paintings of landmarks to local shops. His draft evasion was detected, but after failing a medical exam back in Austria, he was let go and moved back to Munich.
Introduction to war and politics
In 1914, elated with Germany's entering into World War I, Hitler volunteered to the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment and fought on the western front. He was wounded once in the thigh and later in a gas attack at the end of the war. Hitler was an enthusiastic soldier, sometimes to the dismay of his compatriots. He was well liked by his peers and superiors but his lack of a sense of humor was notable. Later most of his comrades became Nazis. Corporal Hitler was awarded the Iron Cross, First Class for completing a dangerous delivery of a dispatch in 1918.
The war ended while Hitler was in the hospital recovering from his injuries due to gas. He was devastated by the news of German capitulation and wept. On discharge from the hospital he returned to his regiment in Munich, Germany. Bavaria was in the hands of a revolutionary government, the Rätrepublik; his barracks was governed by an elected council, to which he was elected. After the suppression of the revolutionary government, Hitler remained in the army and served as a propagandist in the reindoctination of the troops. He was noted for his talent in this work and at the request of the army joined a small political party, the German Workers' Party, Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, which was to become the Nazi Party, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei .
In April 1919, while still in the army, he became the leader of the party (He was not discharged from the army until March 31, 1920). Due to Hitler's organizing and speaking talents the party gained increasing popularity. On November 8 and November 9, 1923, he was involved in an abortive coup known as the Munich Beer Hall Putsch. He was accused of state treason and received a five-year prison sentence and was jailed in Landsberg. During his imprisonment he wrote his political manifesto: Mein Kampf. After nine months he received amnesty and was released from prison. He soon rebuilt his party and again gained tremendous popularity.
Rise to Power and after the 1930 elections
Hitler became Chancellor of the Weimar Republic in 1933 through a coalition with conservative and right wing parties, who had hoped to use Hitler's popularity to gain power. Once in power he initiated what was called the "legal seizure of power." In the course of a few years he managed to consolidate dictatorial powers through parliamentary legislation. Later he turned out to be an erratic and unpredictable leader of the armed forces, often disregarding opinions of experienced generals and marshals.
Under Hitler's leadership, driven by a vision of a Nordic master race, Germany invaded several of its smaller neighbors, igniting World War II. This vision also drove an attempt to systematically exterminate other peoples--notably the Jews--later called the Holocaust, in which 5-10 million people were killed. Other hated peoples included the Romani or Tzigane (Gypsies) of which between 600,000 and 2 million were killed (about 70% of the population in German controlled areas) and Slavs, who were considered an inferior race and supposed to be partly exterminated and partly enslaved.
World War II itself brought the death of tens of millions more, including 20 million casualties in the Soviet Union alone.
After midnight on 29 April, Hitler married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony in the Führerbunker. After a modest wedding breakfast with his new wife, Hitler dictated his will to his secretary Traudl Junge. The event was witnessed and documents signed by Krebs, Burgdorf, Goebbels, and Bormann. Later that afternoon, Hitler was informed of the execution of Mussolini, which presumably increased his determination to avoid capture.
On 30 April 1945, when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery, Hitler shot himself and Braun bit into a cyanide capsule. Their bodies were carried outside to the bombed-out garden behind the Reich Chancellery, where they were placed in a bomb crater and doused with petrol. The corpses were set on fire as the Red Army shelling continued. Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz and Joseph Goebbels assumed Hitler's roles as head of state and chancellor respectively.
In the testament he left, he circumvented other Nazi leaders and appointed Admiral Karl Dönitz as his successor.
In her 1980 book "Am Anfang war Erziehung" (translated as "For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-rearing and the Roots of Violence"), Alice Miller attempts an explanation of Hitler's violent urges from childhood trauma.
His mother had married a man 23 years her elder whom she called "uncle Alois"; her three small children died in the course of a few years surrounding Adolf's birth, leading to extreme pampering of Adolf by his mother. He was regularly beaten and ridiculed by his father; once when Adolf tried to escape from home he was almost beaten to death. Adolf hated his father throughout his life and there are reports of him having nightmares about his father in late life. When Nazi Germany had occupied Austria, Hitler had the village where his father grew up destroyed.
Throughout Hitler's (and his father's) life, there were speculations that the father of his father was a Jew (his grandmother was a maid in a Jewish household which later paid alimony for her son); this would have been a great shame in the pervasive anti-semitism of the times. This insecurity correlates with Hitler's later command that every German prove their non-Jewish ancestry up to the third generation.
Cultural depictions and representation
Hitler has frequently been used as a character in works of fiction. An early example of a cryptic depiction is in Bertolt Brecht's 1941 play, The Resistable Rise of Arturo Ui in which Hitler (in the persona of the principal character Arturo Ui), a Chicago racketeer in the cauliflower trade, is ruthlessly satirised.
Amongst many other film representations, Charlie Chaplin made fun of Hitler in his 1940 movie The Great Dictator. Alec Guinness's depiction of Hitler in Hitler: The Last Ten Days (1973) was, to say the least of it, a curiously idiosyncratic take on Hitler's persona.
The photomontage artist John Heartfield made frequent use of Hitler's image as a target for his brand of barbed satire.
Forged diaries of Hitler, known as The Hitler Diaries, were published in Germany in 1983.
After midnight Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun got married on the morning of April 30, 1945. On the April 30, 1945 at 3 pm. Hitler and Eva comitted suicide.
President Dwight David Eisenhower was the 34th (1953-1961) President of the United States and an Allied commander in World War II.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower, aged 25, married Mamie Doud, aged 19, on July 1, 1916, at the home of the bride's parents in Denver, Colorado. The Eisenhowers had two sons. Doud Dwight "Icky" Eisenhower was born September 24, 1917, and died of scarlet fever on January 2, 1921, at the age of three; Eisenhower was mostly reticent to discuss his death. Their second son, John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower, was born on August 3, 1922, while they were in Panama. John served in the United States Army, retired as a brigadier general, became an author and served as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971. John, coincidentally, graduated from West Point on D-Day, June 6, 1944.
His first distinctive work involved exploring the feasibility of crossing the North American continent with modern mechanised equipment, shortly after World War I (see below). Between the wars he served in quasi-political aide de camp roles or similar. After his success in army maneuvers in 1941, he was vaulted over 4000 officers to an assignment as chief of operations (1942) and rose from that post to U.S. commander of the European theater of operations in June 1942. He was overall commander for the North African landings in November of that year, and in February 1943, took command of Allied forces in North Africa.
In December 1943, after the successful invasion of Sicily in July, 1943 and Italy in September, he was appointed supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces. His diplomatic skills helped keep the other allies, notably the British, particularly Gen. Bernard Montgomery, on side. Another notable achievement was his skill at combined operations, the difficult art of coordinating land, sea, and air forces toward a single strategic goal, which culminated in the Normandy landings on D-Day in June 1944. After the war, as Army Chief of Staff, he advocated merger of the army, navy, and air force into single combined military force.
When World War II was over, General Eisenhower became head of the military occupation government of Germany as the Allied Control Council. He served as president of Columbia University in 1948-1952.
Eisenhower was a complex, mercurial man. Confident and self-contained in public, he was content with his public image as president as a grinning, patriotic but somewhat inarticulate citizen-politician. In truth, he was a far more calculating man than he let on, with great natural political skills.
President Dwight David Eisenhower (called Ike for short) had a big smile and big ideas. As president, he brought many changes to the government by giving the cabinet more power. He was a military man, but fought no wars in his eight years as president, except for ending one. He resisted entreaties to get involved in Vietnam on the advice of General Matthew Ridgeway who gave him a comprehensive estimate of the massive commitment that would have been required. He signed defense treaties with Korea and Taiwan, and he severed diplomatic relations with Cuba. He forced desegregation in schools, and kept defense spending very low.
For the 1948 election, Harry S Truman secretly told Ike that if he ran for president as a Democrat, Truman would go as his running mate and Eisenhower would get a sure win. Ike refused because he didn't want to be president. For the 1952 election, he was approached again, this time by the Democrats and the Republicans. He still refused, because he did not consider himself a politician. But he changed his mind when "I Like Ike" clubs started popping up all over the country. Eisenhower had never even voted for president before, and had no political affiliation. He ran for the Republicans because he was a strong believer in the two-party system, and there hadn't been a Republican president in over twenty years.
During his campaign Eisenhower never mentioned his main competitor, Adlai Stevenson, by name. Instead he mostly criticized the ways of Truman, who had just been the Democratic president. This strategy worked, and he got 442 electoral votes, compared to Stevenson's 89. What makes this appear especially amazing is that he had never even held public office; however he had had links with the Washington system between the wars in his aide de camp capacity. But he was considered a war hero, and so he had a good image.
He got the votes of both Democrats and Republicans, because he had "middle way politics" meaning he was a moderate Republican, allowing Democrats to also agree with him. This method allowed him to get along well with the mostly Democratic senate, and it made him very popular during his presidency. On the other hand, when his terms were over he was greatly criticized for his politics.
When Arkansas governor Orval Faubus wouldn't desegregate the schools, despite the ruling of the Supreme Court, Eisenhower brought in troops because the Supreme Court ruling was the law and it had to be followed.
Eisenhower is also strongly criticized for not taking a public stand against Senator Joseph McCarthy, although he privately hated him, particularly for McCarthy's attack on his friend and World War II colleague, Secretary of State General George Marshall.
Eisenhower endorsed the United States Interstate highway Act, in 1956. It was the largest American public works program in history, providing a 41,000-mile highway system. Eisenhower had been impressed during the war with the German Autobahns and also recalled his own involvement in a military convoy in 1919 that took 62 days to cross the United States.
Another achievement was a twenty percent increase in family income during his presidency, which he was very proud of. He added a tenth cabinet position -- the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare -- and he gave all of the cabinet members more responsibilities in their areas, letting them take a lot of praise and glory. And he achieved a balanced budget three of the years that he was president.
During his campaign he promised to stop the Korean War, and it was one of the first things he accomplished as president. He flew to Korea and implied in a show of brinkmanship that he would spread the war to China, and bring in nuclear weapons. This was effective and a cease-fire was signed in 1953. He signed defense treaties with Korea and Taiwan, and entered SEATO, which was an alliance with Asian countries to try and stop Communist China. Eisenhower was very concerned about Communism, which may be the reason he did not speak out against McCarthy. He formulated the Eisenhower Doctrine, which helped justify US involvement in Lebanon during his second term. He was also concerned about too much war: in a speech at the end of his second term, he warned against the "military-industrial complex".
There were high tensions in the Middle East, particularly between Israel and Egypt. The British and French sided with Israel, and they attacked Egypt. Then Egypt tried to get the Soviet Union to help, and the Soviet Union threatened that they would. Eisenhower did not want the conflict to turn into the third World War, and he demanded that the United Nations replace the force of England and France. Britain agreed to withdraw, and the crisis was ended. The US did not become involved in any major military conflicts during his administration.
Eisenhower left an interesting legacy. He was very popular during his presidency, but soon after it ended historians rated him as one of the worst presidents in history. This was mainly because of his reluctance to help desegregation and to stop McCarthyism. Also, he made the nuclear arms race much worse, with continuous threats. But in a recent poll of historians, he was rated number eleven. This is because people understand his presidency differently now. They realize that he played up the cabinet's accomplishments and played down his own purposely. He wanted to spread the responsibility around, so that it was possible to get more done. They also remember that he accomplished the Interstate Highway Act and kept defense spending very low.
"Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. The world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children." -- Speech, 1953, to the American Society of Newspaper Editors. Inaugural Addresses:
His Farewell Address (noted for the introduction of the phrase "military/industrial complex" into public political discussion)
The Eisenhower Presidential Library is located in Abilene, Kansas. Eisenhower and his wife are buried in a small chapel there.
Charles-André-Joseph-Marie de Gaulle (November 22, 1890 - November 9, 1970) was a French general and statesman.
Born in Lille, De Gaulle was the son of a teacher and was educated at the Ecole Militaire de Saint-Cyr. He graduated in 1912 and joined the infantry. In World War I he was taken prisoner in March 1916 during the Battle of Verdun.
When the war ended, he remained in the military, he was part of the staff of Maxime Weygand and then Henri Philippe Pétain. He was a strong supporter of the new ideas of mechanized troops and specialized armoured divisions.
At the outbreak of World War II he was a colonel, by May 1940 he was a brigadier general and in command of the 4th Armored Division in Alsace. On June 6, 1940 Paul Reynaud appointed him undersecretary of state for war. As a member of the cabinet he resisted the call to surrender and finally left France for England on June 15 when Marshal Pétain became premier (he disagreed with Pétain's stance on seeking an armistice with the Germans). From London he formed and led the Free French Forces movement. In France he was codemned to death for treason in July 1940. Working with the French resistance and active in the French colonial holdings in Africa, following the Anglo-American invasion of North Africa in November 1942 de Gaulle moved his headquarters to Algiers in May 1943. He established the Committee of National Liberation and soon made himself the chairman.
After the war he served briefly as the President of the provisional government from October 1945 but resigned in January 1946, impatient with the speed of progress and disapproving of the constitution for the Fourth Republic. In 1947 he made a renewed attempt at transforming the political scene, but with little success he withdrew again in 1953. Following the Fourth Republic's failures in Indochina and the constitution crisis over Algeria, on June 1, 1958 de Gaulle was made premier and given wide emergency powers. He used this opportuity to rewrite the constitution, in a referendum in September 83% of those who voted supported the new constitution and the creation of the Fifth Republic. In the November 1958 elections de Gaulle and his supporters won a comfortable majority, in December de Gaulle was elected President with 78% of the vote, he was inaugurated in January 1959.
He oversaw tough economic measures to revitalize the country, including the issuing of a new franc (worth 100 old francs). Internationally he rebuffed both the USA and the USSR, pushing for an independent France with its own nuclear weapons. As one of the founder members of the EEC he took the opportunity to deny the British entry. Over the war in Algeria de Gaulle quickly believed the conflict was unwinnable and argued for the country's independence, this stance created huge anger among certain French national groups, and de Gaulle was forced to suppress risings in Algeria by French nationals. He was also targetted by the terrorist Organisation de l'Armée Secrète (OAS). In 1962 de Gaulle arranged a cease-fire in Algeria and a referendum supported his grant of independence, finally done in April 1962.
In September 1962 he sought a constitutional amendment to allow the president to be directly elected by the people. Following a censure in the National Assembly, he dissolved that body and held new elections, the Gaullists won an increased majority. Although the Algerian issue was settled the prime minister, Michel Debre, still resigned over the final settlement and was replaced with Georges Pompidou.
In 1965 de Gaulle was returned as premier for a seven year term but only after a second round of voting. His strong nationalism and a certain level of economic weakness were used against him. Internationally de Gaulle continued to annoy everyone, he again rejected British entry into the EEC, he condemned the US over Vietnam and the Israelis over the Six Day War, he also withdrew France from NATO.
On an official State visit to Canada in 1967 to celebrate that country's 100 years of nationhood, President de Gaulle ignited a storm of controversy when he stood before a crowd of 100,000 French-Canadians in Montreal and uttered the slogan of Quebec "Separatists": Vive le Quebec Libre! While this support for Quebec's separation from the rest of Canada was a monumental diplomatic blunder and interference into another country's private affairs, it was one that inflamed the passion of French-Canadians and inspired members of the radical Front de liberation du Quebec (FLQ). Following de Gaulle's remark, the Prime Minister of Canada, Lester B. Pearson, cancelled plans for de Gaulle's visit to the capital of Ottawa, and asked the French President to leave the country. Criticized at home in France for the remarks, his opponents reminded the wartime general of the thousands of Canadian soldiers (see: Vimy Ridge) buried all over France who fought and died for France's freedom in both World Wars. Critics also drew the parallel for interference between Quebec independence and the Franco-German historic contestation of ownership of the German-speaking Alsace and Lorraine regions seized by France after the War.
The huge demonstrations and strikes in France in 1968 were another challenge, de Gaulle was willing to accept some of the reforms the demonstrators sought. He again considered a referendum to support his moves, but Pompidou persuaded him to dissolve parliament and hold new elections instead. The June 1968 elections were a major success for the Gaullists, offered the spectre of a Communist revolution the majority of the counry rallied to him. His party won 358 of 487 seats. Pompidou was suddenly replaced by Maurice Couve de Murville in July.
De Gaulle resigned on April 28, 1969 following the defeat of his proposals to transform the Senate into an advisory body while giving extended powers to regional councils. He retired to Colombey-les-Deux-Eglises where he died.
Many streets and public buildings in France bear his name; in particular, in Paris the former Place de l'Etoile and one of the airports, Roissy - Charles de Gaulle.
lAdmiral Karl Doenitz 1891-1980 was the leader (Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote) of the German U-boat campaign during World War II. Under his administration, the U-boat fleet fought the Battle of the Atlantic attempting to starve the United Kingdom of vital supply shipments from the United States. Although Winston Churchill remarked that it was this aspect of the war which most worried him, German U-boats succeeded in intercepting only a small fraction of supply to Britain.
During 1943 the war in the Atlantic turned against the Germans, but Doenitz continued to push for more U-boat construction and technological development. At the end of the war the Nazi submarine fleet was by far the most advanced in the world, and late war examples such as the Type XXI served as models for Soviet and American construction after the war.
Doenitz was also chosen by Adolf Hitler as his successor, a choice that shows how distrustful Hitler had become of Goering and Himmler in the final days of the War in Europe. After Hitler committed suicide on April 30 1945, Doenitz became the final German Führer, ruling until the final surrender on May 8. He devoted most of his efforts to trying to ensure that German troops surrendered to the Americans and not the Soviets, since the Germans feared that the Soviets would torture or kill them in revenge for how they had treated the Soviets.
Following the war, he was tried as a war criminal in the Nuremberg Trials. Unlike many of the other defendants, he was not charged with crimes against humanity, and historians are in general agreement that Doenitz did not participate in and had no knowledge of the Holocaust. However, he was charged with being involved with the waging aggressive war, conspiracy to wage aggressive war, and crimes against the laws of war. Specifically, he was charged with waging unrestricted submarine warfare and with issuing an order after the Laconia incident not to rescue survivors from ships attacked by submarine.
As one of the witnesses in his defense, Doenitz produced an affidavit from Admiral Chester Nimitz who testified that the United States had used unrestricted warfare as a tactic in the Pacific and that American submarines did not rescue survivors in situations where their own safety was in question. Despite this he was found guilty of "crimes against peace", for which he was sentenced to, and served, 10 years in prison. Of all the defendants at Nuremberg, the verdict against Doenitz was probably the most controversial; the Soviet judge actually voted for his acquittal on all charges, and Doenitz always maintained that he did nothing that his Allied counterparts weren't doing.
His memoirs, entitles Ten Years and Twenty Days, were published in Germany in 1958 and translated into English the next year. Late in life, his reputation was rehabilitated to a large extent, and when he died in 1980, scores of his former servicemen and foreign naval officers came to pay their respects.
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel, popularly known as the Desert Fox, was a German field marshal of World War II. He earned the respect of both his own troops and his enemies. Popularly known as the Desert Fox.
In 1913, Rommel developed a relationship with Walburga Stemmer, which produced a daughter - Gertrud Stemmer (Born 1913 Died 2000), Gertrud. Rommel ultimately broke off his relationship with Stemmer. Rommel supported his daughter, who was brought up by her grandmother and was referred to as Rommel's niece, maintaining a close relationship with her throughout his life. He married Lucia Maria Mollin. Rommel's marriage with Lucia was a happy one, and Rommel wrote her at least one letter every day while he was in the field. and he had 1 son with Lucie - Manfred Rommel (Born 1928 Died 2013)
Hirohito (1901-1989) was emperor of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989. He took over at a time of rising democratic sentiment, but his country soon turned toward ultra-nationalism and militarism. During World War II (1939-45), Japan attacked nearly all of its Asian neighbors, allied itself with Nazi Germany and launched a surprise assault on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. Though Hirohito later portrayed himself as a virtually powerless constitutional monarch, many scholars have come to believe he played an active role in the war effort. After Japan’s surrender in 1945, he became a figurehead with no political power.
He had 1 wive Empress Kōjun 6 March 1903-16 June 2000 (aged 97), and he had 5 Children: Shigeko Higashikuni, Sachiko, Princess Hisa, Kazuko Takatsukasa, Atsuko Ikeda, Akihito, Masahito, Prince Hitachi, Takako Shimazu.