Council of Mahmud II ordered Janissaries to drill in European Manner
Mahmud II vs. Muhammad Ali
Ali's French-trained troops occupied Syria, and Mahmud II begged Austria, Russia, and Britain for help. These countries helped the Ottomans because a big, weak country is better than strong, little countries.
Laws made by Ottoman statesmen that called for equality of all religions before the law, the rights of business, security, and prosperity, administration, and military