Becket: Period 5 Timeline

5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism

James Watts Steam Engine

1765

James Watts steam engine was a new addition to the world of power. It incorporated the new found use for coal in making transportation faster and easier by way of train. It powered factories that created all of the consumed goods and it was the backbone of the Industrial Revolution, which puts it int this category.

Cotton Gin Developed

1793

The cotton gin was developed by Eli Whitney. It mechanized the production of textiles, producing cloth and fabrics faster and more efficiently then the past method of loom weaving. Since it was steam powered, it was placed into the Industrial category.

Communist Manifesto

1848

The Communist Manifesto was written and published by philosopher, journalist, and sociologist, Karl Marx. It defined the class struggle, with the bourgeoisie and proletariats, and outlined the flaws of capitalism. This made it popular with the lower class, and places it in this category.

Origin of the Species Published

1859

The Origin of Species was a scientific literature work published by naturalist and geologist, Charles Darwin. It was where the theories of evolution and natural selection were introduced. This led to social Darwinists applying these theories to politics and economics, earning it a place here.

Meiji Restoration

1868

The Meiji Restoration was a time of great reform in Japan, under emperor Meiji, but it should not be in the reform category, since the entire reform was meant to bring industrialization to Japan. Japan had had closed borders for a very long time and once opened, realized how out of touch they were. They began to implement western ideas and technologies, allowing it to catch up in the world.

Boer War

1899 - 1902

Also known as the South African War, this war was fought by the South Africans against British miners, who wanted to exploit the precious minerals in the area. Gold and diamond deposits were abundant there. Since the British miners were capitalizing on the minerals, it is in this category.

Henry Ford's Assembly Line

1913

Henry Ford was an American industrialist. It was he who perfected the assembly line technique, in mass production. Although he didn't actually invent either the car nor the assembly line, he developed the first affordable middle class car, and perfected the assembly line. This puts him in this category.

5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State Formation

Napoleonic Wars

1799 - 1814

After Napoleon had enacted complete dictatorship of France, he began a long string of conquests to expand French territory. But his fervent use of enlightened ideas and nationalism began to worry the rest of Europe, so a huge wave of nationalism raced through Europe, because the other countries were of the thought that being German or British was better than Napoleonic rule. Since France became powerful and nationalism was rampant, it is in this category.

Reign of Napoleon

1799 - 1814

Napoleon Bonaparte was short, but his reign was long and full of conquest. When he took over France, the country was in shambles after the reigns of terror and the execution by guillotine of Maximilen Robes-Pierre. He turned into a dictator quickly, and implemented nationalist ideals to win over his subjects with schools and holidays. He expanded much of France during the Napoleonic Wars. The reign of Napoleon coincided with the Napoleonic Wars that defined France, so it is in this category.

Suez Canal

1859 - 1869

The Suez Canal was a canal in Egypt that the British built to have easier access to their colony in India. Colony control was an imperialist way to expand an empire, so it is placed here. The Suez Canal today connects the Mediterranean Basin to the Indian Ocean, facilitating trade.

Unification of Italy

1859 - 1870

Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Gabrialdi were the driving forces behind the unification of Italy. Gabrialdi had an army of 1000 men, and swept Italy recruiting and being sneaky. While Cavour eradicated northern Italy of Austrian nobility, Gabrialdi handed over the south to Vittore Emannuele, and a new monarchy absorbed the rest until unification was achieved. Since a new unified Italy emerged as a nation, it is in this category.

Unification of Germany

1864 - 1871

When Germany was still divided into many different states, it was up to Otto von Bismarck to unify the states. He enacted a series of very strategic wars that made Germany seem like a victim, so other powers would drive Hungarians and Austrians out of the states, finally uniting them. Since Germany emerged as an enormous power, it is in this category.

Berlin West Africa Conference

1884 - 1885

The Berlin West Africa Conference was a meeting that decided how trade in Africa would be regulated, and initiated the Scramble for Africa. All previous forms of African autonomy and self rule were demolished by this agreement. It also started Belgium's abuse of the Congolese. Since their were colonies from many countries in West Africa, it is in this concept.

Panama Canal

1904 - 1914

The Panama Canal is a huge example of economic imperialism from the Americans. It was created to ease ship passage from Peru to Spain, and this shows how it was used specifically for economic purpose. This puts the construction of the Canal in this category.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

These battles were fought between Russia and Japan for a position in Manchuria so they could place colonies there, putting the event here. When Japan won the war, they finally established themselves as an up to date and industrialized world power.

Fall Of Qing Dynasty

1911

The Fall of the Qing Dynasty occurred because, first, they were not modernizing and industrializing either fast enough or at all. Second, the people of the Qing began to become restless due to economic imperialist pressure from Britain. This led to rebellion. The combination of a corrupt government, due to use of opium, and the following Opium War and unrest in the dynasty led to it's downfall, and since it was also brought about by British imperialism, it is in this category.

5.3 Nationalism, Revolution and Reform

Reign of King Louis XVI

1774 - 1793

The Reign of King Louis was rife with rebellion. When he was betrothed to Austrian noble, Marie Antoinette, he was doomed right then and there. Not only were his people starving out in the cold, he and his wife who spent obnoxious amounts of the wealth, as well as other nobles, lived a sumptuous lifestyle within the gates of Versailles. When he refused to do anything about the peoples needs, his execution started a long reign of terror on France. Since rebellion ended his reign, it is put here.

American Revolution

1775 - 1781

The American Revolution, (quite obviously in this category), was due to the heavy taxation of the American colony by the British. When the colony realized they had had enough they created a series of documents that recorded their independence and constitution. That colony is now a huge world power: America.

Simon Bolivar

1783 - 1830

Simon Bolivar was one of the main proponents in the independence of Latin America. His main goal was to turn South America into a confederation, and have states, but because of regional difference, his plan didn't work, but not without much trying. He died before his plan could happen, and since he was major in the Latin Revolution, he is here.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The French Revolution pitted the 90% of destitute citizens against the 1% rich monarchy. The citizens wanted equality and for France to be ruled by popular sovereignty. The monarchy didn't want anything to change, and stayed locked up in pleasure palaces for too long, and didn't hear the protest until it was far too late. Since the goal was to reform and revolutionize, it is in this category.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1803

The Haitian Revolution is widely known as the only successful slave rebellion in all of history. Touissant L'Ouverture was a major military leader for the slaves that fought for freedom. Haiti was a French colony, and while the Haitian slaves did gain independence, they had to pay an unimaginable amount of money, yearly, to France. Another revolution, placing it here.

War Of Latin American Independence

1810 - 1825

This revolutionary war took place when Napoleon attempted to occupy South America in a bid to expand the French empire when the attempt in North America proved unsuccessful. The tides turned when Creoles abandoned the European side and joined forces with the Latinos to ward off Napoleon. They succeeded and their fight landed them in this category.

Congress Of Vienna

1814 - 1815

The goal of the Congress was to create a peace agreement in all of Europe. They attempted to do this by examining and settling on reasons and outcomes from the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. They redrew borders, re-instituted the monarchy, and, while pretending it didn't happen, fortified the monarchy to make sure something like the French Revolution never happened again.

War Of Greek Independence

1821 - 1827

The war of Greek Independence was essentially the Greeks fighting for freedom, backed by pretty much everyone, against the deteriorating Ottoman Empire. Russia, Britain, and France grew tired of the conflict and sent their navies to liberate the Greek. Since the Greeks were successful in getting liberation, they are out into this category.

Opium War

1839 - 1842

This battle began with Britain. The British had been growing a drug called opium and began to sell it to Chinese officials and then the public. The Chinese government hated that the British were getting their citizens addicted to a drug that inhibited working productively. They cut off the British from selling, which angered the Brits because of free trade acts. A war ensued. Britian came out victorious because of their industrialized society and the Qing had not industrialized yet. The Brits then controlled the Chinese economy, and the Qing Dynasty collapsed.

Women's Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, NY

1848

This convention occurred when women decided that they needed to know whether or not basic human rights pertained to women. The convention was debating enlightened thinking and the rights of humanity. It was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They succeeded in passing resolutions that allowed women many rights that men already enjoyed. The women were attempting to reform so they are in this category.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

The Taiping Rebellion was a reform movement that was bent on ending the Qing Dynasty, and they almost succeeded. They protested abolition of private property, creation of communal wealth, prohibition of footbinding and concubinage, free public edu., simplification of written language, and literacy for masses. Their leader was Hong Xiuquan.

Indian National Congress Founded

1855

This coalition was created when the Indian natives realized that they deserved a voice in the British government, seeing as how the Brits controlled them. This was an enormous example of Indian nationalism, in direct response and against he British imperialism. Since they were nationalist and attempting to reform, it is in this category.

Sepoy Rebellion

1857

The Sepoy Rebellion was due to rising tensions and a spark that set those tensions aflame. The Indians had grown less and less comfortable with the British colonizing in India, and the tension was growing. What started the conflict was that British soldiers gave the Muslim and Indians gun cartridges that had been coated in cow and pig grease, and unwittingly, the soldiers used them, which went against the religions that oral contact with animal was bad. When the soldiers found out, they began to slaughter colonists.

Boxer Rebellion

1900

The Boxer Rebellion started when a group of Chinese began to speak out about the British control of the Chinese economy. It ended when the British government put down the threat, since the Qing were to weak to put down even the smallest rebellion. Since it is literally a rebellion, it is put into this category.

All-India Muslim League founded

1906

This movement came about with the attempt to advance political and social Muslim interest, who were 25% of India's population. They allied with the Indian National Congress in 1916. They basically wanted the Muslim rights to be kept with the change in everything else. Since it is a reform group it is put here.

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

This is here because it is a revolution, quite obviously. The oppressed Mexican people wanted independence, and actual physical rebellions broke out. The American government gave the Mexican government money, to put down the rebellion, but after much complex voting and election, Mexico won out and gained freedom.

5.4 Global Migration

Emancipation of Russian Serfs

1861

The Russian government realized that in order to be considered still a world power, they needed to industrialize. To do this, the government emancipated all serfs, so they could be industrial workers. But, the serfs to poor to be able to go anywhere, so they were unable to go anywhere but where they were working. As the world around them moved, the serfs were forced to be stationary, placing them here, as a testament to the global migration changes and continuity.