The French Revolution was inspired by the American Revolution and the newly popular enlightenment ideals of the time, like popular sovereignty, basic human rights, and the social contract. Tensions in France were on the rise with incompetent royals Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, whose extravagance caused outrage among starving peasants in the struggling French economy. France's Estates General were an incredibly unfair governmental institution in which nobles and clergymen (3% of the population) had more say in the government than the other 97%. The Revolution began as educated middle class men began campaigning for a more enlightened government, then began spiraling out of control as the revolutionaries factionalized and the situation deteriorated. The most radical left group, the Jacobins, eventually established themselves as the leaders of the revolutionaries. This marked the beginning of the Reign Of Terror, in which thousands were executed for suspicion of counterrevolutionary actions. After the Jacobins' leader, Robespierre, was executed, France was in political turmoil until Napoleon took over and launched the Napoleonic Wars. Historically, the French Revolution was one of the more radical revolutions, and it inspired revolutions in other locations, like Haiti and Latin America.
5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism 5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State Formation 5.3 Nationalism, Revolution and Reform 5.4 Global Migration