King Louis was the last Bourbon king of France. He married an Austrian archduchess Marie-Antoinette. After both over spent and government problems the French revolution begun causing Louis to be executed then Marie-Antoinette 9 months later. Connects to 5.3 because after and towards the end of his life King Louis tried to change how things in France were but after his death is when more changed.
Napoleon was the first emperor of France and military leader. He reorganized education and established the long-lived Concordat with the papacy and saved the government from counter-revolutionary forces. He was named commander of the Army of the Interior and an adviser to the Directory on military matters. Connects to 5.3 because Napoleon was nationalistic and wanted all of the countries he conquered to have believe what he believes.
James Watt a Scotsman was the perfecter of the steam engine. He did not invent it but he made it better. The steam engines used to pump water out of the mines in England. To make the engine more effective cylinder had to be kept as hot as the steam that entered it but there had to be a cool section for the steam to condense. He came up with the idea of a separate condenser. Connects to 5.3 and 5.4 because he reformed something to make it more efficient and make something that could be used globally to make countries more efficient.
The American Revolution was so America could gain Independence from Britain. France was on the side of the colonists (American) which caused the British to surrender in Yorktown, Virgina 1781. Many acts were put in place on the colonists from the British such as the Stamp act, Tea act and Quartering act which made colonists house the British for as long as needed wanting the colonists to gain their own Independence. Connects to 5.3 because the American revolution was a revolution and gained independence for America.
Simon Bolivar was a South American soldier that was important during the revolution against the Spanish empire. He campaigned in Venezuela to take control of the country away from Spain. Civil war erupted in the republic, making him move to Jamaica. With support from Haiti he returned to his home continent and became involved in a number of military battles, eventually able to claim several territories. Connects to 5.2 because he had a nationalistic view for Venezuela.
The spending by King Louis XVI and before him almost sent France into Bankruptcy also two decades of poor cereal harvests, drought, cattle disease and skyrocketing bread prices. Peasants were less and less willing to support the anachronistic and burdensome feudal system. The wealthy got increasingly wealthier. The money the French were spending and the money they sent to America during the American revolution almost sent them into bankruptcy.Connects to 5.3 because it was a revolution reform of France.
The Haitian Revolution is known as the largest slave rebellion in the western hemisphere. They succeed in getting rid of slavery as well as French rule. Before the war for independence Haiti was a slave-based sugar and coffee industries that had been fast-growing and successful. But when the revolt started the Americans helped the French, Spanish and British forces also aided in ways. Connects to 5.3 because it was a revolution and helped many gain independence.
Eli Whitney (1765-1825) was born in the United states and became the inventor of the cotton gin a machine that helped make the production of cotton more productive. Connects to 5.3 he was reforming on way of doing things to make life easier.
The Napoleonic wars were wars fought between France under the leadership of Napoleon. They involved almost all European nations also involving Egypt, America, and South America. During the war warfare was to change and move towards modern warfare leaving behind forever the idea of war as a sport of kings and moving towards the concept of Total War and the nations in arms. Weaponry was also evolving during the wars like the advance in riffles and rockets. Connects to 5.3 because it reformed France.
The wars for independence commenced when Napoleon Bonaparte dethroned Ferdinand and replaced him with his brother. This act led to a weakening Spanish power in Latin America. Mexico revolted first and did not succeed causing Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla the leader to be executed. Bolivar and the Juntas lead a movement for Venezuelan Independence in Buenos Aires, the revolt seemed to be successful but was not when the Spanish came to take Buenos Aires back under their control. Bolivar returned to Venezuela beginning the tide of successful uprisings in 186. Connects to 5.3 because in reformed Latin America
The war for Greek independence started when the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire rebelled establishing their own kingdom of Greece. The Greeks had sense of Greek nationality and had long been fostered by the Greek Orthodox Church, by the survival of the Greek language, and by the administrative arrangements of the Ottoman Empire impacted their economic progress and the impact of Western revolutionary ideas further intensified their nationalism. Connects to 5.3 because it reforms the Greeks to have independence
The first Opium war was between China and Britain. The second was Britain and France against China. The problems started when China tried to suppress the trade of Opium that British traders had been illegally exporting to China. Which caused addiction across China. Connects to 5.3 and 5.4 because it reformed the relationship between the Chinese and British and spanned across a nation.
The unification of Italy was first lead by Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi but they failed trying to change it into a democracy. Camillo di Cavour a politician that used the tools of realpolitik to unite Italy under the crown of Sardinia. Connects to 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 because it was an industrial state that was coming and growing, was forming into its own state and was a reform from what it once was.
The convention was organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Both are abolitionists and met at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. The convention was on the social, civil, and religious conditions and rights of women. Over 200 women were in attendance. Connects to 5.2 because it is forming a place for women to gain more power in the growing world.
The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It was published by German revolutionary socialists(communist league) in London. The Manifesto was supposed to put an end to classes but did not have immediate impact by 1950 half the population lived under Marxist government. Connects to 5.3 because Karl Marx liked to have people think and be like he is.
The Taiping Rebellion was a radical political and religious upheaval that took 20,000,000 lives and changed the Qing Dynasty forever. The rebellion was led by Hong Xiuquan a civil service examination candidate who was influenced by Christian teachings and believed that he was the son of God. Connects to 5.3 because it tired to reform china and change how it was.
Otto van Bismark was the face of German unification through blood and iron. He improved the Prussian army and trained them for war and formed an alliance with Austria. Connects to 5.3 because it reformed Germany with the help of Otto van Bismark and Prussia to become better then its past self.
The Sepoy rebellion was an unsuccessful rebellion that was between British and India. By 1850s the East India Company controlled much of India that introduced India into trade but started to become a diplomatic and military operation. A large number of native solders where hired by the EIC to maintain order and defend trading centers. Connects to 5.3 because the rebels have nationalism towards their nation and feel as though they need to reform it to get it to become better.
Charles Darwin produced this book that soon became the most influential book of modern times. This book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. Connects to 5.4 because it helped new ideas across the globe and made people more interested in the sciences also changed the world today.
Serfs were not the same as slaves. Landowners did not own the Serfs. Serfs made up 1/3 of the population and 1/2 of the peasant class. The reform was during the reign of Tsar Alexander II. In the Emancipation Manifesto it says that any serf can become a free citizen, were free the marry and could own their own land or business and the Government loaned them money. Connects to 5.2 and 5.3 because it freed the serks and reformed their country.
The Meiji Restoration was a political revolution that started the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate and returned the control to a direct imperial rule under the emperor Meiji. The revolution brought modernization and Westernization to Japan. Connects to 5.3 because it reformed Japan to become more industrialized and westernized and catch up with the rest of the world.
The Suez canal connected the Mediterranean sea and the red seas. Ferdinand de Lesseps was the builder of the canal. The canal was 100 miles across the Isthmus of Suez. But the canal its self was 25 feet deep and 300 feet across. It was one of the most heavily traveled ship lane. Connects to 5.4 because it connected areas of the world through trade and migration of people
After the death of Emperor Qianlong is when the empire began to fall. The fall of the Qing involved rebellions, wars, natural disasters, economic problems, famines, and invasions. The dynasty was successful because of the always growing population. Also all their land stayed theirs and they slowly modernized as an empire. but with the uprising s and natural disaster it was to much and the dynasty fell. Connects to 5.1 and 5.2 because the country had nationalism and was becoming industrialized like the rest of the world.
European countries like Great Britain, France, and Germany began looking in Africa for natural resources for their growing industrial needs as well as potential market goods that these factories can be producing. The countries sent people to secure treaties from the indigenous people so they could have a spot in Africa's goods. This led to conflict throughout the English countries. Connects to 5.4 because where moving to different continents to gain land and expand their nation.
They passed fairly moderate reform resolutions for India. Many people in the group became radical because of the increased poverty in India due to British imperialism in India. They began to boycott British goods and would promote Indian goods. Connects to 5.2 and 5.3 because the British had an imperial rule over India and India had a since of nationalism boycotting British goods for their own.
The Boer war was between Britain and small African states that had settlers that were descendents of the first Dutch immigrants (Boers). Canadians joined to help in the war on the side of the British. Over 7000 British troops and nurses were sent overseas to aid during the war. Connects to 5.3 and 5.4 because they were reforming Africa and they involved many other parts of the world
The Boxer Rebellion was led by a secret Chinese society called the Righteous and Harmonious Fists that was against the spread of Western and Japanese influence. The westerners (boxers) took Beijing the capital until an international force that included American troops stopped the uprising. Connects to 5.3 because the people rebelled and caused a change for the people.
Patriotic fever and the capitalization over 100,000 mostly small investors caused the French Compagnie to start work on the panama canal. That would unite the Pacific and Atlantic ocean through Panama. The canal became of much use with trade to the west and down towards Mexico. Connects to 5.4 because it connected parts of the world and made trade easier.
The Russo-Japanese war begun when Japan forced Russia to abandon its expansionist policy in the Far East becoming the first Asian power in modern times to defeat a European power. It was because of the rivalry between Russia and Japan for states like Korea and Manchuria. Russia had pressured China into granting it a lease for the strategically important port of Port Arthur that was located at the tip of Manchuria. Connects to 5.3 because it reformed both Russia and Japan after the war and during the war.
The all Muslim league was a political group that led the movement for a separate Muslim nation to be created at the time of the partition of a British India. It was created as a safeguard for Indian Muslims. It started out in the Britishes favor then they became self-governed and became an independent India. Connects to 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 because India had nationalism for themselves and reformed their country to not involve Britain. They involved people from Europe to make it more global.
The Mexican Revolution ended dictatorship and established a constitutional republic. Revolutionary leaders consisted of Francisco Madero, Pascual Orozco, Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Connects to 5.3 because they reformed Mexico into a better nation.
He started mass production on an entire automobile that reduced building time of cars from 12hours to 2.5 hours. It was sturdy and inexpensive for people. Connects to 5.1 because they are growing into a new and improved era.