Biblical History

Kings of Judah & Israel


1020 bc - 1000 bc



1000 bc - 960 bc



960 bc - 930 bc



931 bc - 910 bc

Jereboam I 931-911

Nadab 911-910


930 bc - 922 bc

Kingdom splits


922 bc - 913 bc

Rehoboam 922-915
Abijam 915-913

Abijam struggled to reunite Judah & Israel but failed, although he did win a major victory of Jeroboam I that secured Judah.


913 bc - 873 bc



910 bc - 886 bc

Baasha 910-887
Elah 887-866
Zimri 866


886 bc - 875 bc


885 bc - 882 bc

Tibni - a rival ruler, not officially recognized
Date should be 886 - 882, changed for alignment


875 bc - 852 bc

Ahab 875-853
Ahaziah 853-852


873 bc - 849 bc



852 bc - 841 bc


849 bc - 843 bc



843 bc - 837 bc

Ahaziah 843-842
Athaliah 842-837


841 bc - 814 bc


837 bc - 800 bc



814 bc - 806 bc



806 bc - 791 bc


800 bc - 783 bc


Jeroboam 2 / Zchrh

791 bc - 750 bc

Jeroboam II 791-750
Zechariah 750


783 bc - 742 bc

Azariah / Uzziah
including regency years


749 bc - 737 bc

Shallum 749
Menahme 749-739
Pekahiah 739-737


742 bc - 735 bc



737 bc - 732 bc



735 bc - 715 bc



732 bc - 722 bc



715 bc - 687 bc



687 bc - 642 bc



642 bc - 640 bc


Josiah / Jhhz

640 bc - 609 bc

Josiah reigned from 640 bc to 609 bc
Jehoahaz 609 bc (3 months)

Josiah is credited with reformation of the Temple in accordance with Deuteronomic Law, including compilation and editing of Hebrew Scripture.
He was killed in battle with Neco of Egypt.
Judah was allied with Babylon. Egypt was allied with Assyria (Ninevah/Assur)

Jehoahaz, the 2nd son of Josiah was chosen as King by Judah and reigned for 3 months. He was deposed by Neco of Egypt, and eventually taken to Egypt as a prisoner.


609 bc - 597 bc

Jehoiakim 609-598
Jehoiachin 598-597
Jehoiakim was the eldest son of Josiah. He was placed on the throne by Neco of Egypt who deposed his younger brother. His reign was embroiled in the international power struggles between Egypt & Assyria(Ninevah) against Babylon.

Jehoiakim was a vassal of Egypt from 609 to 605, when Babylon defeated Assyrian & Egypt at Carchemish, ending the Assyrian Empire.

Jehoiakim became a vassel of Babylon until 602 at which time he switched allegiance once again to Egypt.

Babylon invaded Judah in 599. Jehoiakim died in 598 during the seige of Jerusalem.

Jehoiachin reigned as King for 3 months, and was deposed after the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians.
He was taken away as a part of the first deportation in 597 bc.


597 bc - 587 bc

Zedekiah was appointed King after the capture of Jerusalem by Nebudchanezzer of Babylon in 597.

He began a revolt in after allying himself with Pharoah Hophra of Egypt. Nebuchadnezzar laid seige to Jerusalem in 589 as a result. Jerusalem was taken and destroyed in 587. Babylon decreed a 2nd Judean deportation.


0 ad - 31 ad

Writer's Timeline


750 bc - 722 bc

Hosea was active in the Northern Kingdom.

Syria & Israel are at war with Judah to force Judah into an anti-Assyrian position.
King Hoshea's rebellion ended with the defeat and destruction of the northern kingdom in 722 BC.

Isaiah 1

738 bc - 688 bc

Chapters 1-39 (without 24-27)
Time period includes Syro-Ephraimite War, revolt against Sennacherib.
Includes material reused from from Isaiah by Isaiah.
Not all of this material can come from Isaiah of Jerusalem.
Creation of the Book of Isaiah in about 435 BC?


627 bc - 581 bc

Jeremiah stayed in Jerusalem after the destruction of the city in 587.

He stayed until the assassination of Gedaliah at which time he fled (willingly?) with the rest of the Jewish leaders, fearing reprisal from Babylonia.

Gedaliah was Jewish and had been chosen to serve as governor of the region for Babylonia. He was murdered by a descendant of the House of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah.

years are approximate.


588 bc - 586 bc


588 bc - 586 bc

Dan Set

587 bc - 539 bc

Isaiah 2?

545 bc - 539 bc

Chapters 40-55.
Toward the end of the Babylonian Exile.

Babylon in the enemy, not Assyria.
Cyrus mentioned twice.

Isaiah 3?

535 bc - 520 bc

Chapters 24-27 & 56-66.
Dates are rough. Post-return & pre-Temple .
Creation of the Book of Isaiah happening at around 435 BC?


460 bc - 450 bc

Malachi means "the messenger". Is it a name or a title?
Makes no reference at all to historical situation.
Dating is estimated by looking at issues raised - mixed marriage for example.

Daniel "Written?"

450 bc - 165 bc

Isaiah Final Edit

435 bc - 434 bc

Book of Isaiah edited together?

Editor's Timeline


1000 bc - 900 bc

Use the name YHWH for God
Promises and Blessings
Southern Version

The New Interpreter's Bible - Old Testament Survey


900 bc - 800 bc

Use the name Elohim for God
Northern Version

The New Interpreter's Bible - Old Testament Survey


739 bc - 737 bc


739 bc - 737 bc

Deuteronomist (B)?

721 bc - 539 bc

2nd Option for Deuteronomist Influence & Editing

Law Codes
Centralization of Worship
Themes of Promised Land, Election & Covenant

King Hezekiah (714-687 BC)
King Josiah (640-609 BC)

Deuteronomists (A)?

650 bc - 601 bc

Deuteronomists 1st Option

Law Codes
Centralization of Worship
Theme of the Promised Land
Election & Covenant

The New Interpreter's Bible - Old Testament Survey

Priestly Source

600 bc - 501 bc

Use the name Elohim for God
Specialized vocabulary (ex. Israel as congregation)
Ordered, Unconditional , Eternal Covenant
Influence extends before and after Exile and Return

The New Interpreter's Bible - Old Testament Survey


536 bc - 534 bc

Empires & Kingdoms

Sumerian Dynasties

2900 bc - 1940 bc

Egypt - Old

2700 bc - 2200 bc

Egypt - Middle

2100 bc - 1800 bc

.............................. Egypt - New

1500 bc - 1000 bc

Neo-Assyrian Empire

934 bc - 609 bc


627 bc - 625 bc

NeoBabylnian Emp

626 bc - 539 bc


551 bc - 549 bc

Persian Empire

550 bc - 330 bc

Roman Republic

508 bc - 265 bc

Roman Republic is dated to 508 BC.
Rome can be considered an international player at the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 264 BC.
Tradition places the founding of Rome by Romulus at 753 BC

Alexander & Hellenistic Kingdoms

334 bc - 30 bc

Rome International

264 bc - 28 bc

Roman Republic is dated to 508 BC.
Rome can be considered an international player at the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 264 BC.
Tradition places the founding of Rome by Romulus at 753 BC

Roman Empire

27 bc - 285 ad

Eastern Empire

285 - 1453

Western Empire

285 - 476

Old Testament Chronology

The Patriarchs

2000 B.C. - 1500 B.C.


1400 bc - 1200 bc

Migration of Hebrew peoples, or those who later coalesce into the Hebrew people into Canaan & surrounding area.
Dates are grossly approximate.

ID & Conquest

1200 bc - 1020 bc

Those migrating into Canaan coalesce into a common cultural identity as they occupy and defend the land. Religious beliefs and practices, however, remained quite diverse as can even be seen in careful reading of the Bible. This time period includes the conclusion of the Exodus (perhaps better called the Entrance) and the periods of Joshua, the Judges and Ruth.

In the stories of these Scriptures we find the people
divine presence
providential grace
absence of God
tragedy that so often comes

The stories found in these Scriptures reflect the people wrestling with their identity and the identity of God who goes before them.

perception & vailing
continued to be refined and edited throughout Jewish history, monarchy, exile and return,
gives these stories the power to speak to us still today as we wrestle with the same questions
suffering not discounted

& subserviance, & into our own day.

Continued refine


1020 bc - 922 bc

United Kingdom in the promised land begun under Saul, expanded under David, and split following the death of Solomon


1001 bc - 999 bc

blank event for alignment

First Temple

1000 bc - 586 bc

Period of the first Temple in Jerusalem built by Solomon.

The Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians after rebellion by Zedekiah, whom the Babylonians had placed on the throne after the first Exile in 598 bc.


922 bc - 587 bc

The Southern Kingdom with its capital and Temple in Jerusalem.

Israel (Samaria)

921 bc - 722 bc

The Northern Kingdom with a seperate Temple and capital in Samaria that was established following the death of Solomon.

Judean Exile

597 bc - 539 bc

Judah Falls to Babylonia
2 Deportations from Judah
1st deportation in 597, after Jurusalem is taken by the Babylonians. Zedekiah was installed as king.
2nd deportation in 586 following Zedikiah's revolt which also resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon's Temple.

Cyrus of Persia allowed the captives to return to Judah and rebuild the Temple.


587 bc - 539 bc

During this period the Babylonian Empire ruled over Canaan. Zedekiah was removed from the throne, Jerusalem was sacked and the Temple was destroyed. Remaining Judean aristocracy were exiled and deported to other parts of the Babylonian Empire. This was the second exile. The first exile occurred in 598 bc, at which time the Babylonians placed a Zedekiah on the throne as a Judean puppet.


539 bc - 334 bc

During this period the Persian Empire ruled over Canaan. They eventually allowed Exiles to return and rebuild a Jewish identity in Canaan, including the Second Temple. Persia maintained rule, however.

Judean Return

538 bc

Cyrus conquers Babylonia
Jews may return & rebuild Temple

Temple Rebuilt

520 bc - 516 bc

Second Temple

515 bc - 0070 ad


334 bc - 165 bc

In 334 bc, Alexander the Great took the region of Canaan from the Persian Empire. The area remained under Hellenistic until 165 bc.


164 bc - 63 bc

Maccabean / Hasmonean Era

Rebellion of the Maccabees that led to a century long independent Jewish state.
At some times it was more independent than others. Independence came to an end with Roman intervention in Judean Civil war.

Roman Era

63 bc - 200 ad

Roman rule began when Pompey the Great intervened in civil war between the brothers Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II. Civil war resulted in the death of Aristobulus, political authority being assumed by Pompey, and Hyrcanus being allowed to serve as High Priest.