Muhammad was born in Mecca approximately around 570 CE and was a part of the Quarysm tribe. Muhammad respected Jews, and his early teachings appeared similar to Jewish tradition, but the Jews began to distance themselves from Muhammad when they didn’t see him or recognize him as a prophet. Muhammad began to build his power by marrying women from important families to gain political advantage. Muhammad is the central prophet of the Islamic faith, and grew to be a successful merchant. He was then commanded by Allah to speak words that would later make up the Qur’an.
The Tang dynasty lived in central cities and suburbs, and used Confucian principles. The dynasty encouraged the spread of Buddhism and had Islamic and Jewish influence on their religious structure. They traded mostly ceramics, paintings, and silk designs, and traded by sea routes linking to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, and routes to Korea, Japan, and Tibet. They appreciated Turkic culture and experienced a plague outbreak. They had shadow plays, puppet shows, music, and scholarly lectures as intellectual advances.
The Mayan Empire was overcoming tropical climate, and the amounts of rain they were receiving washed away all the topsoil for plants and crops. They made sacrifices and were very warlike. Both women and men had a part in helping build things. Powerful cities controlled smaller cities, and the kingdoms that were rivals led by hereditary rulers struggled to fight for regional dominance. The empire started declining due to increasing warfare, the destruction of Teotihuacan which disturbed trade, and the environmental issues with declining ag productivity.
The Heian country was known as “the capital of tranquility.” The country was at peace and spent most of their time creating classical cultures that are still around today. The Japanese shared many ideas from the Chinese culture, such as Buddhism, Confucianism, poetry, techniques of art, and different methods of organizing government. They considered poetry, music, and all other arts to be the most important and greatest human accomplishments. The military rulers became more and more powerful over time, until the power was passed on to the warriors.
The Abbasid dynasty used the Quran, and long distance trade. They had a mix of cultures in Baghdad. The Abbasid dynasty went into the eclipse with the rise of the Turkish army they created. Mamluks ended in 1258, but continued to claim religious authority. They seized power in 750 CE after they defeated the Umayyad in battle.
Charlemagne was the king of the Franks. Religion reform became the main focus for him. He stimulated foreign trade and friendly relations with England. He also founded the Holy Roman Empire, strengthen European economic and political structures, and promoted cultural revival. He pushed to make a unique civilization different than other ancient Roman Empires.
The rise of the Ghana empire made the small political organizations go to a large scale political existence that controlled much of the geographic regions. The kingdom of Ghana grew by using the trade routes crossing the desert. The kingdom began to decline due to military attacks by the Berbers. The kingdom of Ghana remained in its position by collecting taxes from its citizens- import and export tax, and production tax.
The Song dynasty traded along the Silk Road, and the Indian Ocean trade routes as well. They had many advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and also advanced in sailing technology. The advances that were made were frequent and significant in other states. The dynasty did not like barbaric or foreign influences when they tried to deal with enemies that heavily taxed military capacities, especially when they dynasty had multiple military threats. A civil man outranked a military man. They had religions such as Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism. They also had a different and new interpretation on Confucius ideas.
The Great Schism divided the state church of the Roman Empire into eastern and western branched. Political and cultural differenced between the east and west pushed the separation further and further. Whenever the churched tried to reunite, a mutual hatred grew between them. The separation of churches has impacts on both; the East became known as the Byzantium Empire, while the west slowly went downhill, and lost high quality arts, education, and decent living standards.
The invasion of England began by William Duke of Normandy. He became known as William the Conqueror after winning the Battle of Stamford Bridge. William had very secured control over most of England, even though rebellions and resistance continued for a while. The invasion of England removed the native ruling class and replaces it with a foreign French speaking monarchy, aristocracy, and clerical hierarchy. This brought the change of the English language and the culture of England.
Pope Urban made a great speech, where he urged the people of the town to take up weapons and go fight to free Jerusalem. Most groups thought that the traveling and fighting was harder than they though. Most died on the way, and one group decided to stop in Germany and fight the Jews; many Jews were murdered and robbed, simply because they were not Jews. The remaining main Crusaders finally reached Jerusalem, and the Fatimids were too busy fighting the Seljuks to defend Jerusalem, that the Crusaders took over, and took Jerusalem and other small cities with them to the Mediterranean coast.
There were many Muslim dynasties that ruled India; it was founded by Muhammad of Ghor. The Sultanate was invaded by the Mongol invader, Timur the Lame. The Delhi Sultans began to weaken due to rebellions and civil wars. There were five different dynasties; The Slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlags, the Sayyids, and the Lodhis. The influence of the Muslim invasion led to many cultural changes; a new religion, literature, art, and architecture changed by a substantial amount.
Chinggis came to power by uniting nomadic groups of the northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire, he starts the Mongol Invasions that resulted in the conquest of Eurasia. Chinggis died after defeating the Western Xia. He promoted religious tolerance in the Mongol empire and unified the nomadic tribes at northeast Asia.
The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and was known for the wealth of its rulers. The Mail Empire had many cultural influences on West Africa allowing the spread of its language, laws, and customs. The Mali empire combined traditional African and Islamic culture. The empire had a well organized military and administrative system and a Great Assembly of clan leaders by monopolizing by developing the agricultural resources and the gold trade. The empire collapsed when several states inside it defended their independence.
Kublai Khan desired to unite different religions, nationalities, and cultures together in the Yuan Empire. He didn’t trust Chinese people, but he was fascinated with their traditions, art, and their culture. He promoted peaceful toleration between religions, cultures, and languages. He conformed to the Chinese ways so well, it insulted the conservative Mongols, that they began to cause problems for Kublai.
The Yuan dynasty was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leaders Kublai Khan and Chinggis Khan. Their grandfather, Genghis Khan, was put on the official record as the founder of the dynasty. The Yuan dynasty was one of the shortest time period for a dynasty to be around, in the history of China. A rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty; some of the major cultural achievements were the development of drama, the novel, and the use of written vernacular. The Muslims of the dynasty introduced Middle Eastern cartography, astronomy, medicine, and many other intellectual achievements.
Ibn was born into a Berber family of Islamic scholars. He is know as one of the greatest travelers of all time- it was estimated to be 75,000 miles of traveling. The journey covered almost the entirety of the Islamic world and beyond, going to North Africa, West Africa, Southeast Asia, and East China. Ibn Battuta was a Moroccan Muslim scholar, and decided to travel after receiving and education in Islamic law.
Mansa Musa reigned over the empire of Mali during its golden years; his control of gold mines and cities gave him the wealth he needed to be noticed. This attention was directed towards Mali because of his dedication to Islam and his generosity. Mansa Musa came in contact with architects that would set standards in a construction tradition that could last for centuries.
The Aztec Empire was the most powerful Mesoamerica empire of all time. The empire began to expand as it began to conquer more cites, although some cities resisted, and others were conquered and began to pay respect to the empire. The power of the Aztecs became more solid and they began to form alliances; the military grew stronger as well. The Aztec Empire was organized and strong, until the combination of cultures took place and eventually the Aztec Empire vanished.
Hundred Year’s War (1337-1453 CE): The hundred years war was a series of wars between England and France to see who should take the throne to be king. The war introduced new weapons and started the beginning of French nationalism. The war was split into three main wars; the Edwardian War, they Caroline War, and the Lancastrian War. The war was interrupted and stopped for about 8 years as Europeans dealt with the loss of over one half of their population die to the strike of Black Death.
The most devastating outbreak of the Bubonic Plague was the Black Death, which killed over one third of Europe’s population. The disease originated near China, and was more than likely spread through the Silk Road trade route. The disease was carried out through fleas on rats, and spread throughout the trade routes, also spreading throughout the valleys. The epidemic was ignored by the government, and it caused the downfall of the Yuan Dynasty.
Agriculture peaked for the Ming dynasty around mid 1400 CE. Ship building declined in 1420, but advances occurring in printing started. They treaded lacquered screens, silk, and other goods by foreign merchants and traded throughout South Asia, India, Middle East, and East Africa. They had a vast population and lived in citied; the dynasty was both culturally and commercially vibrant. Advances in technology were less significant and less frequent compared to the Song Empire. They allowed Daoism, Buddhism, and other religions such as Christianity was introduced.
Zheng he was put as the admiral in control of a big fleet and armed forces that assumed responsibility during their expeditions. Zheng He’s first expedition consisted of giving and receiving goods along the way. His routes were well establishes and well mapped routes. He was motivated for the expedition by his devotion to Islam.
Constantinople was one of the most forceful cities in the world to protect or have strength against attacks. Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire, and was assaulted by Sultan Mehmed II, the ruler of the Ottoman Turks. Many attacks were launched upon the empire, but the Constantinople army was not able to gain order and strength before more attacks came. This lead to the fall of the Constantinople Empire.
The Inca empire had a population of more than 6 million citizens and stretched from the Maule River, to northern Ecuador and from the Pacific coast to the upper Amazon, and into Argentina. It was built on traditional social customs and economic practiced. The Inca empire didn’t introduce new technology, they increased economic output and added onto the region’s prosperity. The death of the Inca ruler, Huayna Capac, by fighting in a violent and gruesome struggle for the thrown, made the Inca Empire face a crisis.