Near Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, in present day Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Iran. Due to geography it was controlled by many empires over time, ending with its conquer by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. The first civilization here was known as the Babylonians or Sumerians.
Began to study endocrinology, histology, comparative anatomy, etc. They were fascinated by sickness & believed that it was a sign of the displeasure of he gods. They were advanced in dentistry, and even had laws governing medical malpractice.