Roman Kingdom and Republic - David

Roman Kingdom

Founding of Rome

753 BC

Romulus and Remus founded Rome on seven hills

Romulus

753 BC - 716 BC

Proclaimed himself king after murdering his brother. The first recognized king of Rome was its mythical founder, Romulus.
To him is attributed the foundation of the senate.

Numa Pompilius

716 BC - 672 BC

To the Romans King Numa Pompilius was the father of their culture; the man who turned the semi-barbarian peasants, criminals and bride-robbers of Romulus into something resembling a civilization.

Tullus Hostilius

672 BC - 640 BC

With the death of the peaceable Numa Pompilius rule next fell to the warlike Tullus Hostilius. In these primitive days of early Roman history many of the disputes arose from mundane issues such as cattle rustling along territorial borders.
Numa Pompilius had been a diplomatic man who would seek to achieve reconciliation. However, his successor Tullus Hostilius was a man who would seek to solve problems by the sword.

Destruction of Alba Longa

650 BC - 644 BC

When another such dispute arose between Rome and its neighbour Alba Longa, Tullus Hostilius declared war. Given the very close ties between the two cities, this was a virtual civil war. The Albans were soon crushed, their leader torn apart by two chariots and the city of Alba Longa was destroyed.

Ancus Marcius

640 BC - 616 BC

Rome’s fourth king was Numa Pompilius’grandson and therefore another Sabine. Ancus Marcius was chosen as a ruler to restore the peace and quite the Romans had enjoyed under the rule of his grandfather.
This in turn gave Rome’s neighbours the impression that the city’s new leader was a pushover, eager for peace at any price and therefore unlikely to retaliate.

Tarqunius Priscus

616 BC - 578 BC

The fifth king of Rome was one Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (Priscus in this case simply signifies him as Tarquin ‘the Elder’ and it was a title attributed to him much later by Roman historians). The stories surrounding this monarch show us that we are still deeply reliant on legend and myth to paint any sort of picture of his rule. Tarquin the Elder, as Tarquinius is generally called, moved to Rome from the Etruscan town of Tarquinii. His father, Demaratus, was a nobleman from Corinth who was forced to leave his city (655 BC) when the tyrant Cypselus assumed power there.

Servius Tullius

578 BC - 534 BC

The sixth king, Servius Tullius, was a monarch celebrated for particularly high achievement by the Romans. Perhaps the most impressive idea ascribed to Servius Tullius is the census, which counted the people and ranked them in five classes, according to wealth.

Tarquinius Superbus

534 BC - 509 BC

Having come to power by means of a violent conspiracy, Tarquin the Proud lacked any kind of legitimacy. He therefore governed Rome by much the same methods than those he’d used to win the throne. Tarquin was a tyrant similar to those which had seized power in many other Hellenistic kingdoms. His only means of sustaining his position were violence and oppression.

Roman Republic

Founding of Roman Republic

510 BC

Sextus, the son of king Tarquinius Superbus raped the wife of a nobleman, Tarquinius Collatinus. King Tarquinius' rule was already deeply unpopular with the people. This rape was too great an offence to be tolerated by the Roman nobles. The first ever two elected leaders of Rome were Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus.

Censorship established

443 BC

In Rome, as in the ancient Greek communities, the ideal of good governance included shaping the character of the people. Hence censorship was regarded as an honourable task.

First Samnite War

343 BC - 341 BC

The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars, between the early Roman Republic, fighting for control of Italy, and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century, involving almost all the states of Italy, and ended in Roman domination of the Samnites.

First Plebian Consul

336 BC

According to tradition, the consulship was initially reserved for patricians and only in 367 BC did plebeians win the right to stand for this supreme office, when the Lex Licinia Sextia provided that at least one consul each year should be plebeian. The first plebeian consul, Lucius Sextius, was thereby elected the following year.

Second Samnite War

326 BC - 304 BC

With Rome having recovered from the First Samnite War, they sought to instigate a new war. To do this, they built colonies in Samnium, which resulted in the Samnites declaring war upon them. T

Third Samnite War

298 BC - 290 BC

Roman domination over the Italian peninsula from the Po river to the cities of Magna Graecia