Delink Church and State
Protection of civil rights; court ordered desegregation plans
First Started in towns and lated expanded to include larger districts, these schools were open to those who could afford to pay. Found generally in New England, these schools taught basic skills and religion.
These Schools prepared wealthy men for college and emphasized a classical curriculum, Including Latin and some Greek. From European roots, the curriculum in these schools reflected the belief that the pinnacle of civilization was reached in the Roman Empire.
These private schools taught by women in their homes offered child care for working parents willing to pay a fee. The dames who taught here received poor wages, and the quality of instruction varied greatly.
Women conducted schools in their homes.
Offered minimal instruction
Informal, co-ed, limited resources, early behavioral management.
Rural America could not support schools and full-time teachers. As a result, in sparsely populated New England, itinerant teachers carried schooling from village to village; they lived in people’s homes and provided instruction. In the South, private tutors taught the rich. Traveling teachers and tutors, usually working for a fee and room and board, took varying levels of education to small towns and wealthy populations.
Itinerant: Traveling from place to place.
Foudned to prepare ministers
The New England Primer was the first reading primer designed for the American Colonies. It became the most successful educational textbook published in 18th century America and it became the foundation of most schooling before the 1790s.
Private schools, often located in the middle colonies, offered a variety of special studies. These schools constituted a true free market, as parentis paid for the kind of private school they desired. As you might imagine, both curricula and the quality of these schools varied greatly.
These private schools moved away from the classical Latin tradition to more practical studies. These schools were viewed not as preparation for college, but as preparation for business careers and as a means of instilling social graces. Some of these schools set a precedent by admitting white girls.
The academies where a combination of Latin and English grammar schools. These schools taught English, not Latin. Practical course were taught, but history and the classics were also included. Some academies emphasized college preparation, while others emphasized vocational studies.
Example of how secondary schools evolved.
Systematic instructional materials
These secondary schools differed from their predecessors in that they were free; the were governed by the public, not by private boards. The high school can be viewed as an extension of the common school movement to the secondary level. High schools we open to all social classes and provided both precollege and career education.
In 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York to provide young women with the same higher education as their male peers. Prior to the school's founding, young women had been unable to pursue the advanced curricular offerings in mathematics, classical languages, and the sciences that were taught to their male counterparts.
First free secondary School
Common Schools (1830 - present)
The common school movement was a radical departure from earlier ones in several ways:
Free and open to all social classes. Horace Mann’s idea was to bring democracy to the classroom. Now called elementary schools.
Systematic Instruction Materials
McGuffey Readers were a series of graded primers, including grade levels 1-6, widely used as textbooks in American schools from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, and are still used today in some private schools and in homeschooling.
Creating of Massachusetts State Board of Education (Horace Mann)
263, 096 enrollment
Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, USA; established by Booker T. Washington.
Junior High schools (1909- present)
Junior high schools (7 - 9 grade) were designed to meet the unique needs of preadolescents and to prepare them for the high school experience.
to get rid of negative feelings towards teachers.
Middle schools (grades 5 - 8) were designed to meet the unique needs of preadolescents and to prepare them for the high school experience.
The Massachusetts School Laws were three legislative acts of 1642, 1647 and 1648 enacted in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The most famous by far is the law of 1647, also known as the Old Deluder Satan Law (after the law's first sentence) and The General School Law of 1642. They are regarded as historical first step toward compulsory government-directed public education in the United States of America.
such laws were spread throughout most New England.
Reserve land for education purposes
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress did not have the power to raise revenue by direct taxation of the inhabitants of the United States. Therefore, the immediate goal of the ordinance was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states acquired after the end of the Revolutionary War in the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
Reserve land for education purposes
taxes can be used to sponsor secondary education.
In 1875 a lawsuit was filed in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to collect public funds for the support of a village high school. The town had used taxes to support the school for thirteen years without complaints from the citizens. The defendants in the case, the school officials, felt that a select few out of thousands need not dispute their obligation to pay taxes for the purpose of supporting a high school.
Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal.
Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Funds science, math, and foreign language programs
1.Educational services to English Language Learners
2. Funding decreasing
Serrano vs. Priest (1971): The California Supreme Court struck down the state’s financing system as unconstitutional and the Clara education as a fundamental right. Rejecting the high reliance on local property tax system.
San Antonio versus Rodriguez (1973): the Supreme Court ruled against Rodrigues (who claimed that the system violated the U.S. Constitution’s guarantee for equal protection under the law) deferring the long history of local communities funding neighborhood schools.
Education for all handicapped Children Act
Edgewood vs. Kirby (1989): The Texas Supreme Court issued an unanimous decision that such differences violated the Texas Constitution, in order Texas to devise their plan.
NCLB is a United States Act of Congress that is a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which included Title I, the government's flagship aid program for disadvantaged students. NCLB supports standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes in education.
For establishing kindergarten as an integral part of a child's education
Came from German ideas
Beecher’s educational philosophy:
1. hands-on learning
2. not giving awards because learning is for the sake of learning.
3. opposed role memorization
4. taught ‘sophisticated’ classes
5. “the great uses of study are to enable her to regular her own mind and to be useful to others”, primarily as a teacher.
Beecher had to make the point that female teachers was the best option/ was good for society and not only for the women
Better teachers than the men that were currently presiding classrooms.
1. She helped ignite a moral panic about male teachers.
2. Cheaper — saving strategy for governments launching compulsory school for the first time.
For her integrity and bravery in bringing education to African American girls
Born of Quaker parents
She was an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized women's rights and women's suffrage movements in the United States.
was an American educator and abolitionist whose school for African American girls, established against considerable opposition, grew to a successful and long-lived teachers institution.
She established a Normal School for AA teachers in Washington DC.
was an American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society.
was an American author, educator, speaker and one of the most prominent African-American scholars in United States history. Upon receiving her PhD in history from the University of Paris-Sorbonne in 1924, Cooper became the fourth African-American woman to earn a doctoral degree. She was also a prominent member of Washington, D.C.'s African-American community.
For her work in identifying the educational potential of young children
She concluded that children have an inner need to work at tasks that interest them.
Practical and formal skills.
carefully prepared environment.
For her contributions in moving a people from intellectual slavery to education.
Founded a school that eventually became Bethune-Cookman College. (black)
Profiled for his creation of a theory of cognitive development.
Contributions in altering environments to promote learning.
For his work in identifying the crippling effects of racism on all american children and in formulating community actions to overcome the educational, psychological and economic impacts of racism.
Psychologist who studies the effects of segregation.
For his global effort to mobilize education in the cause of social justice.
Against teacher centered approaches.
Advocate that education should be a space for social change
She is an American feminist, educationalist, and philosopher best known for her work in philosophy of education, educational theory, and ethics of care.
While consequentialist and deontological ethical theories emphasize universal standards and impartiality, ethics of care emphasize the importance of response. The shift in moral perspective is manifest by a change in the moral question from "what is just?" to "how to respond?"
He was an African-American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community.
was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
Charles Hamilton Houston (September 3, 1895 – April 22, 1950) was a prominent African-American lawyer, Dean of Howard University Law School, and NAACP Litigation Director who played a significant role in dismantling the Jim Crow laws
William Bagley popularized the term essentialism and has been dominant since WWII.