Roman Kingdom and Republic J1


Roman Kingdom

Founding of Rome

Approx. 753 BC

Founding of the City of Rome


753 BC - 717 BC

Founded city of Rome by killing brother Remus and building fortifications, organized and sponsored growth of Rome.

Numa Pompilius

715 BC - 673 BC

Sabine, disciplined king who ruled wisely and piously and instituted new calendar reforms and religious institutions.

Tullus Hostilius

673 BC - 642 BC

Warlike king who defeated and made a vassal out of the Latin city of Alba Longa, fought successful campaigns against the Sabines and Fidenae and Veii, failed to pay much attention to religious activities.

Ancus Marcius

642 BC - 617 BC

King who paid attention to religious ceremonies, fought against the Latin towns, cities, and villages, expanded Roman territory to the sea.

Tarquinius Priscus

616 BC - 579 BC

Greek King of Rome who instituted Senate reform by expanding the Senate, subdued and warred against the Latin cities, defeated the Sabines as they infiltrated and besieged Rome, subjugated Etruscan cities, created public games, sewers, and stone walls of Rome.

Destruction of Alba Longa

Approx. 600 BC

Destruction of Alba Longa after defeat by the Romans, only temples were left standing and citizens were transported to live in Rome (mostly lived on the Caelian Hill), with prominent families becoming Patricians.

Servius Tullius

578 BC - 535 BC

Etruscan king with servile origins who had many military successes against the Veii and the Etruscans, improved fortune for lower class non-patrician citizens, extended voting rights, expanded tribal distinctions and boundary, created Diana's temple, and was unceremoniously murdered by Tarquinius Superbus.

Tarquinius Superbus

535 BC - 509 BC

Last King of Rome, arrogant and loftily unpopular with populace, tyrannical king that led to abolition of monarchy, unjustifiably murdered many Senators and supporters of Servius Tullius, made alliances with Latins and Etruscans, defeated Sabines and established colonies, removed many Sabine shrines for Temple of Jupiter, constructed more seats in the circus and excavated Rome's sewer, and finally overthrown by people due to sexual aggression and tyranny.

Roman Republic

Founding of the Roman Republic

Approx. 509 BC

Tarquinius Superbus overthrown, replaced with authourity of consuls, magistrates, senate, priests, and committees.

Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus as Consul

460 BC

Was consul, plebeian counterpart Gaius Terentillus Harsa pushed through many populist policy reforms.

Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus as Dictator (1st Period)

458 BC

Aequii and Sabines captured Roman consul, Cincinnatus elected as dictator to counter enemy, subjugated them in 15 days

Censorship Established

443 BC

Census and related activities of providing for social morality handed over from authourity of consuls to that of censors, a newly created political office.

Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus as Dictator (2nd Period)

439 BC

Made dictator to put down conspiracy of Spurius Maelius, Maelius was quickly neutralized and Cincinnatus promptly resigned.

First Plebeian Consul

366 BC

First Plebeian consul to be elected, instituted quotas of plebeian officials to be elected to public posts.

First Samite War

343 BC - 341 BC

Campania pleads to Rome for help against Samnites, ceasefire reached with Campanians and Sidicini going to Latin League, effectively being conducive to wars between Rome and Latin League

Second Samnite War

326 BC - 304 BC

Rome built colonies in Samnium to provoke war, Samnites and Campanians started to fight and Campanians sought Roman assistance, 5 year halt with 600 hostage equites and 2 consuls taken hostage, Etruscan and Samnite alliance to counter Rome failed as Rome gained many crucial victories, peace with severe terms on Etrsucans and Samnites imposed.

Lex Olgunia

300 BC

Tribune Quintus Olgunia Gallus in making Lex Olgunia helps open up priesthoods for plebeians, also increases pontifices from 5 to 9, also demanded 5 augurs to be plebeian.

Third Samnite War

298 BC - 290 BC

Romans and Etruscans resumed hostilities as Rome resumed expansionary activities, war broke out as Umbrians, Samnites, Gauls, and Etruscans united to counter Roman power. Campania and Lucania ally. Results in Roman victory and Roman domination of the Italian Peninsula.

First Punic War

264 BC - 241 BC

Rome lands on Sicily, Carthaginian territory. Rome promptly constructs navy, and wins war, Sicily due to persistence and private funding. Rome becomes dominate naval power in Mediterranean and both Carthage and Rome are financially and demographically exhausted.

Second Punic War

218 BC - 201 BC

Hellenic colony of Saguntum fought over by Rome and Carthage, Carthage fights Saguntums without Roman resistance and Saguntum is dominated by Carthage. Hannibal takes initiative to fight Rome through surprise overland attack, loses many men and Carthage and Rome forced to come to peace under Roman terms. Rome takes control of Western Mediterranean, gains control of Iberian and Balearic lands, Punic Africa becomes tributary, Numidia is unified.