Chapter 14/15

Second Industrial Revolution

Britain Joint Stock Companies

1856

passage of laws permitting joint-stock companies

Bessemer process for making steel

1857

English engineer invented process for manufacturing steel cheaply in large quantities

France Joint Stock Companies

1863

Prussia Joint Stock Companies

1870

Panic of 1873

1873

triggers major international economic depression
several large banks failed and some industries entered 20-year-long period of stagnation

Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone

1876

Edison light bulb

1879

1st electric power plant Britain

1881

Gottlieb Daimler internal combustion engine

1885

Daimer automobile

1889

1st major impact of petroleum

1890 - 1899

Wireless telegraphy

1895

Diesel engine

1895

Wright brothers flight

1903

Ford Model T

1909

Sanitation

Louis Pasteur

1822 - 1895

France

Joseph Lister

1827 - 1912

Britain

Cholera epidemics

Approx. 1830 - Approx. 1849

Villermé’s Catalog of the Physical and Moral State of Workers

1840

about urban working class conditions in France

Chadwick’s Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population

1842

in England

Robert Koch

1843 - 1910

Germany

British Public Health Act

1848

French Melun Act

1851

introduced new restraints on private life and enterprise. This legislation allowed medical officers and building inspectors to enter homes and businesses in the name of public health. The state could condemn private property
for posing health hazards. Private land could be excavated
to construct the sewers and water mains required to protect
the public. New building regulations restrained the activities of private contractors.

Women's History

Revised English divorce law

1857

University of Zurich admits women for degrees

1865

John Stuart Mill’s The Subjection of Women

1869

extension of logic of liberal freedom to position of women. arguments for utility and efficiency (good for middle-class liberals) used to expose human and social waste implicit in inferior role assigned to women

University of London admits women as candidates for degrees

1878

English Married Woman's Property Act

1882

Union of German Women's Organizations founded

1894

National Council of French Women founded

1901

British Women's Social and Political Union founded

1903

Norway permits women to vote

1907

on national issues

British suffragettes adopt radical tactics

1910